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2007年在黄河三角洲布设了一口24.6m的浅钻ZK1,对获取的岩芯样品进行了详细的沉积学观测及含水量、有机碳、总碳和营养成分的实验室分析测试。通过ZK1孔的地层分析,将其划分为7种沉积环境,揭示了滨海湿地地质演化过程。并利用AMS 14C测年方法,结合黄河改道的历史记录,运用历史地理学和沉积地质学综合分析的方法对黄河三角洲沉积环境进行了年代划分,并计算了黄河三角洲不同沉积环境沉积物的沉积速率和碳的加积速率。结果表明:总碳和有机碳与除硫和磷元素以外的各营养成分都呈良好的线性相关(R20.7,Ρ0.05);碳、氮、磷的加积速率与沉积物的沉积速率呈极显著正相关关系(R20.95,Ρ0.01),沉积物的沉积速率是碳、氮、磷的加积速率的主控因素;虽然现代黄河三角洲沉积物有机碳浓度较低(1%),但由于沉积物的高沉积速率,现代黄河三角洲沉积物有机碳的平均加积速率达到648.1g/(m2·a),远高于世界其它高有机碳浓度的湿地,因此是很好的碳汇地质体。  相似文献
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建立了湛江湾泥沙数学模型,模拟了湛江湾海床冲淤演变,模拟结果表明,湛江湾海床较为稳定,年冲淤强度小,模拟冲淤分布与历史海图资料得出的长期演变趋势符合。模型用于湛江湾围填工程对海床冲淤变化的影响预测,结果表明工程后海床冲淤强度没有明显的改变。另外,优选了围填方案,估计了港池的淤积强度。  相似文献
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Rhodoliths are important marine carbonate producers that provide habitat for several marine organisms, and are threatened by ongoing global climate change. Meter‐sized sedimentary patches rich in living rhodoliths, interspersed among corals, were discovered in the back reef of Ras Ghamila lagoon, Southern Sinai, at less than 1 m water depth. In this shallow and relatively sheltered subtropical environment, rhodoliths were found to be monospecific or oligospecific, spheroidal, 3.5 to 9.4 cm in maximum diameter, with warty/lumpy or fruticose (protuberance degree IV) growth forms, and corresponded to the unattached branches or praline type. They grew in bright light under seasonal, moderate, wind‐driven water motion. The dominant rhodolith‐forming species recorded were: Lithophyllum kotschyanum, Porolithon onkodes, Hydrolithon sp. and three species of Neogoniolithon: Neogoniolithon fosliei, Neogoniolithon brassica‐florida, and an undescribed species noted in the text as Neogoniolithon sp. A total of 38 Alizarin‐stained rhodoliths was released in the field and collected after 1 year. They showed different banding patterns (alternating long and short cells) that revealed seasonal growth, with the lowest rates occurring in winter for all species, and an additional summer growth slackening in Neogoniolithon fosliei. Lithophyllum kotschyanum presented evidence of occasional growth cessation, possibly due to temporary burial. The observed annual growth rate of rhodoliths was unrelated to their size. The mean accretion rates were 1.08 mm · year?1 in L. kotschyanum, 0.75 mm · year?1 in P. onkodes, 0.49 mm · year?1 in Hydrolithon sp., 0.85 mm mm · year?1 in N. fosliei, 0.63 mm · year?1 in N. brassica‐florida and 0.57 mm · year?1 in Neogoniolithon sp. The annual mean marginal elongation rate for these taxa was respectively 8.74, 13.92, 3.59, 9.40 and 9.25 mm · year?1, with the exception of Neogoniolithon sp., for which this parameter was not recorded. Maximum marginal elongation occurred in P. onkodes pointing out its greater ability as a space competitor in comparison with the other rhodolith species. The highest accretion rate and common presence of L. kotschyanum indicate its importance as carbonate producer in tropical reef.  相似文献
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潮滩既具有重要的生态服务功能,亦是潜在的土地资源。过去几十年来,中国沿海潮间带的开发以围垦为主要驱动力,表现为海岸线主体向海推进。随着围垦规模和速度加快加大,出现了一系列生态、环境及土地利用问题,因此 对于围垦适宜性的研究具有现实意义。本文以浙江省为例,利用遥感技术首先获取了大陆海岸线阶段性变化特征。接着从地貌均衡的角度,依据潮滩垂向淤涨速率和垂直岸线的潮滩剖面形态估算适宜的潮滩围垦速率。最后,比较海岸线实 际推进速率与估算所得的围垦适宜速率,进行围垦适宜性分级评价。研究表明,1985-2015年间,围垦活动是浙江省大陆海岸线向海推进的主要原因。从时间进程来看,1985-1995年浙江省大陆海岸线向海推进缓慢,受围垦活动影响较小; 1995-2015年间围垦活动频繁,人工岸线比例增加较多。围垦适宜速率的估算显示,杭州湾南岸围垦 1 km后所需恢复时间最短,围垦适宜速率为 12.5~64.3 m/a,其次为象山港和台州湾,围垦适宜速率分别为 2.0~38.3 m/a和 6.0~22.2 m/a;三门湾和温州湾围垦后所需恢复时间最长,围垦适宜速率分别为 1.2~18.5 m/a和 1.7~3.8 m/a。基于潮滩淤涨速率的围垦适宜性评价表明,1985-2015年间,浙江省主要围垦区域中围垦速率过快的是三门湾的下洋涂、蛇蟠岛和温州湾岸段,围垦速率较快区域为杭州湾南岸庵东浅滩部分岸段和象山港的莼湖镇、涂茨镇岸段以及台州湾的南洋涂,围垦速率略快的是庵东浅滩以及台州湾的北洋涂,围垦速率适宜的岸段仅有象山港的高湖塘和蒲门村岸段。浙江省过去 30年的围垦进程和岸线变化启示,围垦活动应充分考虑潮滩环境的地貌动力均衡和自然恢复潜力。  相似文献
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