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1.
Systematic variations in atmospheric heat exchange, surface residence time, and groundwater influx across montane stream networks commonly produce an increasing stream temperature trend with decreasing elevation. However, complex stream temperature profiles that differ from this common longitudinal trend also exist, suggesting that stream temperatures may be influenced by complex interactions among hydrologic and atmospheric processes. Lakes within stream networks form one potential source of temperature profile complexity due to the spatially variable contribution of lake-sourced water to stream flow. We investigated temperature profile complexity in a multi-season stream temperature dataset collected across a montane stream network containing many alpine lakes. This investigation was performed by making comparisons between multiple statistical models that used different combinations of stream and lake characteristics to represent specific hypotheses for the controls on stream temperature. The compared models included a set of models which used a topographically derived estimate of the hydrologic influence of lakes to separate and quantify the effects of stream elevation and lake source-water contributions to longitudinal stream temperature patterns. This source-water mixing model provided a parsimonious explanation for complex stream-network temperature patterns in the summer and autumn, and this approach may be further applicable to other systems where stream temperatures are influenced by multiple water sources. Simpler models that discounted lake effects were more optimal during the winter and spring, suggesting that complex patterns in stream temperature profiles may emerge and subside temporally, across seasons, in response to diversity of water temperatures from different sources.  相似文献   
2.
光度观测是地基观测空间目标的主要手段之一,利用光度信息能够估计空间目标的相关特征信息。为了更好地了解空间目标的旋转状态,选取具有代表性的猎鹰九号火箭末级作为研究对象,由其光变信息研究旋转状态。首先利用云南天文台1.2 m光学望远镜获取猎鹰九号火箭末级的光度数据,再对目标星等进行斜距归一化,得到目标光变信息并分析目标星等随时间变化的曲线,估计大致的旋转周期,再由相位离散最小化方法计算会合周期。根据太阳、目标和测站之间的位置关系、惯性主轴指向、旋转轴指向、初始相位等因素,采用姿态旋转矩阵计算理论星等,利用最小二乘原则确定惯性主轴方向及初相角度、旋转轴指向。最后给出了猎鹰九号火箭末级的旋转周期、会合周期以及旋转轴指向等参数,为后续开展其他空间目标光度信息研究提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
The groundwater divide is a key feature of river basins and significantly influenced by subsurface hydrological processes. For an unconfined aquifer between two parallel rivers or ditches, it has long been defined as the top of the water table based on the Dupuit–Forchheimer approximation. However, the exact groundwater divide is subject to the interface between two local flow systems transporting groundwater to rivers from the infiltration recharge. This study contributes a new analytical model for two-dimensional groundwater flow between rivers of different water levels. The flownet is delineated in the model to identify groundwater flow systems and the exact groundwater divide. Formulas with two dimensionless parameters are derived to determine the distributed hydraulic head, the top of the water table and the groundwater divide. The locations of the groundwater divide and the top of the water table are not the same. The distance between them in horizontal can reach up to 8.9% of the distance between rivers. Numerical verifications indicate that simplifications in the analytical model do not significantly cause misestimates in the location of the groundwater divide. In contrast, the Dupuit–Forchheimer approximation yields an incorrect water table shape. The new analytical model is applied to investigate groundwater divides in the Loess Plateau, China, with a Monte Carlo simulation process taking into account the uncertainties in the parameters.  相似文献   
4.
层状岩体由于层理面或者结构面的存在,在力学上具有横观各向同性的特点,现有的各向同性蠕变模型难以全面反映横观各向同性岩体的蠕变力学特性。为构建能够反映横观各向同性岩体的三维蠕变模型,以能反映瞬时应变、减速蠕变和稳态蠕变特征的黏弹性Burgers模型为基础,基于常泊松比假定,在三维各向同性蠕变本构方程的基础上,按照算子替换的方法,将横观各向同性柔度矩阵代替各向同性柔度矩阵,并考虑了平行和垂直层理方向岩体蠕变力学行为的差异性,推导了横观各向同性岩体的三维蠕变本构方程。根据本构方程的特点,提出了根据平行和垂直方向岩体蠕变试验结果进行三维蠕变本构模型中蠕变参数的辨识方法。将提出的模型应用于三轴蠕变试验参数辨识,从而获得了一套完整的三维蠕变参数,并与试验结果进行对比分析,从而验证了所提模型与方法的合理性和有效性。进一步,指出了传统蠕变试验设计方案的局限性,给出了横观各向同性材料蠕变试验设计建议。研究成果为研究岩体三维蠕变机制提供了新思路,可对岩体蠕变试验设计提供相应的科研支撑。  相似文献   
5.
Groundwater exploitation has been regarded as the main reason for land subsidence in China and thus receives considerable attention from the government and the academic community.Recently,building loads have been identified as another important factor of land subsidence,but researches in this sector have lagged.The effect of a single building load on land subsidence was neglected in many cases owing to the narrow scope and the limited depth of the additional stress in stratum.However,due to the superposition of stresses between buildings,the additional stress of cluster loads is greater than that of a single building load under the same condition,so that the land subsidence caused by cluster loads cannot be neglected.Taking Shamen village in the north of Zhengzhou,China,as an example,a finite-difference model based on the Biot consolidation theory to calculate the land subsidence caused by cluster loads was established in this paper.Cluster loads present the characteristics of large-area loads,and the land subsidence caused by cluster loads can have multiple primary consolidation processes due to the stress superposition of different buildings was shown by the simulation results.Pore water migration distances are longer when the cluster loads with high plot ratio are imposed,so that consolidation takes longer time.The higher the plot ratio is,the deeper the effective deformation is,and thus the greater the land subsidence is.A higher plot ratio also increases the contribution that the deeper stratigraphic layers make to land subsidence.Contrary to the calculated results of land subsidence caused by cluster loads and groundwater recession,the percentage of settlement caused by cluster loads in the total settlement was 49.43%and 55.06%at two simulated monitoring points,respectively.These data suggest that the cluster loads can be one of the main causes of land subsidence.  相似文献   
6.
陆林  邓洪波 《地理科学》2019,39(1):12-21
系统梳理了节点-场所模型及其应用的相关研究成果,发现已有研究主要集中在利用模型分析枢纽地区节点与场所发展特点、探究枢纽地区类型特点、预测枢纽地区发展潜力等方面。基于高速交通网和互联网的快速发展,提出未来节点-场所模型应用研究的重点方向:开展不同类型交通枢纽地区节点功能和场所功能的协同作用研究,探索旅游地空间节点功能和场所功能的平衡发展路径,探究不同要素流网络中节点城市的节点和场所协同发展,揭示节点-场所模型视域下地域空间演化的特征与规律,构建跨学科多元化的研究方法体系。通过加强节点-场所模型的应用研究,有利于优化地域空间结构,提升地域空间功能,丰富地域空间发展的理论研究,对制定地域空间发展规划具有重要启示。  相似文献   
7.
将微粒群算法与位错理论模型相结合,采用中国地壳运动观测网络提供的青藏高原地区2001~2004年GPS测量数据和2000~2006年水准测量数据,通过常规定权和附有相对权比的方法对祁连山北缘断裂的三维滑动速率进行联合反演,并与蚁群算法反演结果进行对比。结果表明,微粒群算法收敛速度快、稳定性高,结合经典位错理论模型,是一种可以有效求解断层三维滑动速率反演问题的优化算法,在大地测量反演领域极具应用潜力。  相似文献   
8.
Offshore pipelines are critical infrastructures and any possible damage may have devastating financial and environmental consequences. Earthquake-related geohazards (such as strong ground motion, active seismic faults, submarine landslides and debris flows) consist crucial threats that an offshore pipeline has to overcome. The main aim of the current study is to examine analytically a seabed-laid offshore pipeline subjected to a lateral kinematic distress due to a submarine landslide or a debris flow. Extra emphasis is given on the impact of pipe-soil interaction on the pipe response, by the realistic representation of the soil resistance via a tri-linear model. Firstly, the proposed analytical model is validated with a numerical model utilizing the finite-element method. Subsequently, various combinations of soil parameters and loading conditions that affect the examined problem are investigated with realistic input data taken from the offshore section of the high-pressure natural-gas pipeline TAP (Trans Adriatic Pipeline) in the Adriatic Sea. Finally, useful conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach.  相似文献   
9.
王璜  王贵玲  岳高凡  甘浩男 《地质学报》2020,94(7):2124-2130
水力压裂技术是成功实现干热岩资源开发利用的重要手段之一,数值模拟技术能够精准预测水力裂缝扩展。针对典型花岗岩,借助黏性单元法,分别模拟了致密花岗岩和天然裂缝存在情况下的水力裂缝扩展特征,得出以下结论:致密花岗岩的水力裂缝形态单一,天然裂缝的存在增加了压裂后裂缝的复杂性;致密花岗岩水力裂缝拓展主要分为憋压和拓展两个交替往复的阶段,当存在天然裂隙时,水力压裂过程会变得复杂;天然裂缝存在时,水力裂缝的缝长和缝宽分别为致密花岗岩的5. 7倍和1. 7倍;缝网的形成需要借助复杂的压裂工艺实现。研究结果可以为增强型地热系统(EGS)储层水力刺激工作提供理论支持。  相似文献   
10.
本研究利用遥感和GIS技术,分析盐城自然保护区1983–2018年的景观格局变化,建立了基于区域自然-社会-经济复合生态系统安全格局的评价指标体系,分析了生态安全变化的空间特征和成因。结果表明,1983–2018年由于人类活动加剧,研究区内景观格局变化强烈,从以自然景观为主发展到自然景观与人工景观并存。在整体生态安全方面,目前保护区的生态安全状况不容乐观,从保护区丹顶鹤的生存状态看,保护区总体上还是适宜丹顶鹤栖息的,但由于人类活动的增加以及政策的调整,丹顶鹤的栖息地呈现破碎化并向核心区和缓冲区等局部区域聚集。我们应从管理、政策制定以及当地居民的环境保护意识上增加宣传和投入,并相应减少保护区内人类活动的强度。  相似文献   
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