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1.
Debris flow is one of the most destructive phenomena of natural hazards. Recently, major natural haz-ard, claiming human lives and assets, is due to debris flow in the world. Several practical methods for forecasting de-bris flow have been proposed, however, the accuracy of these methods is not high enough for practical use because of the stochastic and non-linear characteristics of debris flow. Artificial neural network has proven to be feasible and use-fill in developing models for nonlinear systems. On the other hand, predicting the future behavior based on a time se-ries of collected historical data is also an important tool in many scientific applications. In this study we present a three-layer feed-forward neural network model to forecast surge of debris flow according to the time series data collect-ed in the Jiangjia Ravine, situated in north part of Yunnan Province of China. The simulation and prediction of debris flow using the proposed approach shows this model is feasible, however, further studies are needed.  相似文献   
2.
The emergence of artificial neural network (ANN) technology has provided many promising results in the field of hydrology and water resources simulation. However, one of the major criticisms of ANN hydrologic models is that they do not consider/explain the underlying physical processes in a watershed, resulting in them being labelled as black‐box models. This paper discusses a research study conducted in order to examine whether or not the physical processes in a watershed are inherent in a trained ANN rainfall‐runoff model. The investigation is based on analysing definite statistical measures of strength of relationship between the disintegrated hidden neuron responses of an ANN model and its input variables, as well as various deterministic components of a conceptual rainfall‐runoff model. The approach is illustrated by presenting a case study for the Kentucky River watershed. The results suggest that the distributed structure of the ANN is able to capture certain physical behaviour of the rainfall‐runoff process. The results demonstrate that the hidden neurons in the ANN rainfall‐runoff model approximate various components of the hydrologic system, such as infiltration, base flow, and delayed and quick surface flow, etc., and represent the rising limb and different portions of the falling limb of a flow hydrograph. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
形变大地测量学的进展、问题与地震预报   总被引:12,自引:7,他引:5  
简要概括了形变大地测量学的革命性进展,研讨了它的科学特色、功能和定义以及对地球科学和防灾减灾的推动。形变大地测量学有助于从根本上击破多年来制约地震预报的“瓶颈”,但也存在不少急待解决的问题。着重研讨了在21世纪前10年,形变大地测量学如何依托多年的学科积累并充分受益于人造卫星和数字化等新技术,开展创新性研究和试验以推进地震预报。为此,对当前的研究工作提出了12条科学技术途径。最后对学科名称提出了建议。  相似文献   
4.
采用MS2000型激光粒度分析仪进行测试,利用计算机粒度分析软件对数据进行整理和计算,绘制出样品的频率曲线、概率累积曲线以及粒度众数位值曲线等图件并进行沉积环境分析。厦门地区第四纪环境演化经历了中更新世同安组(含泥中粗砂、含泥细中砂、砂为主)海积一冲积一更新统上部龙海组(含泥粗中砂、含泥细中砂、含泥粗砂、粗砂、细中砂、含细砾中粗砂、中细砂等)冲积一洪冲积一更新世上部东山组(砂、砂砾、含泥中粗砂、粗砂、泥质中细砂、细砂、中粗砂等)冲洪积及部分海积(粉砂、细粉砂、含碳质泥、粘土、淤泥质粘土、粉砂质粘土等)一全新世长乐组(粉砂,淤泥质粘土、粉砂质粘土、碳质粘土、含砂淤泥质粘土,粉砂质亚粘土、粉细砂亚粘土等)海湾沉积。在解释环境变化的同时,说明粒度变化曲线在一定程度上可以作为地层划分的依据之一,并以此对研究区地层进行了详细划分。  相似文献   
5.
Urban effects of Chennai on sea breeze induced convection and precipitation   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Doppler radar derived wind speed and direction profiles showed a well developed sea breeze circulation over the Chennai, India region on 28 June, 2003. Rainfall totals in excess of 100 mm resulted from convection along the sea breeze front. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front was observed in radar reflectivity imagery. High-resolution MM5 simulations were used to investigate the influence of Chennai urban land use on sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation. A comparison of observed and simulated 10m wind speed and direction over Chennai showed that the model was able to simulate the timing and strength of the sea breeze. Urban effects are shown to increase the near surface air temperature over Chennai by 3.0K during the early morning hours. The larger surface temperature gradient along the coast due to urban effects increased onshore flow by 4.0m s−1. Model sensitivity study revealed that precipitation totals were enhanced by 25mm over a large region 150 km west of Chennai due to urban effects. Deficiency in model physics related to night-time forecasts are addressed.  相似文献   
6.
Singh et al (2005) examined the potential of the ANN and neuro-fuzzy systems application for the prediction of dynamic constant of rockmass. However, the model proposed by them has some drawbacks according to fuzzy logic principles. This discussion will focus on the main fuzzy logic principles which authors and potential readers should take into consideration.  相似文献   
7.
We report analyses of noble gases and Nd–Sr isotopes in mineral separates and whole rocks of late Pleistocene (< 0.2 Ma) monzonites from Ulleungdo, South Korea, a volcanic island within the back arc basin of the Japan island arc. A Rb–Sr mineral isochron age for the monzonites is 0.12 ± 0.01 Ma. K–Ar biotite ages from the same samples gave relatively concordant ages of 0.19 ± 0.01and 0.22 ± 0.01 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar yields a similar age of 0.29 ± 0.09 Ma. Geochemical characteristics of the felsic plutonic rocks, which are silica oversaturated alkali felsic rocks (av., 12.5 wt% in K2O + Na2O), are similar to those of 30 alkali volcanics from Ulleungdo in terms of concentrations of major, trace and REE elements. The initial Nd–Sr isotopic ratios of the monzonites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70454–0.71264, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512528–0.512577) are comparable with those of the alkali volcanics (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70466–0.70892, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512521–0.512615) erupted in Stage 3 of Ulleungdo volcanism (0.24–0.47 Ma). The high initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the monzonites imply that seawater and crustally contaminated pre-existing trachytes may have been melted or assimilated during differentiation of the alkali basaltic magma.A mantle helium component (3He/4He ratio of up to 6.5 RA) associated with excess argon was found in the monzonites. Feldspar and biotite have preferentially lost helium during slow cooling at depth and/or during their transportation to the surface in a hot host magma. The source magma noble gas isotopic features are well preserved in fluid inclusions in hornblende, and indicate that the magma may be directly derived from subcontinental lithospheric mantle metasomatized by an ancient subduction process, or may have formed as a mixture of MORB-like mantle and crustal components. The radiometric ages, geochemical and Nd–Sr isotopic signatures of the Ulleungdo monzonites as well as the presence of mantle-derived helium and argon, suggests that these felsic plutonic rocks evolved from alkali basaltic magma that formed by partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the back arc basin located along the active continental margin of the southeastern part of the Eurasian plate.  相似文献   
8.
This paper presents an example of application of the double solid reactant method (DSRM) of Accornero and Marini (Environmental Geology, 2007a), an effective way for modeling the fate of several dissolved trace elements during water–rock interaction. The EQ3/6 software package was used for simulating the irreversible water–rock mass transfer accompanying the generation of the groundwaters of the Porto Plain shallow aquifer, starting from a degassed diluted crateric steam condensate. Reaction path modeling was performed in reaction progress mode and under closed-system conditions. The simulations assumed: (1) bulk dissolution (i.e., without any constraint on the kinetics of dissolution/precipitation reactions) of a single solid phase, a leucite-latitic glass, and (2) precipitation of amorphous silica, barite, alunite, jarosite, anhydrite, kaolinite, a solid mixture of smectites, fluorite, a solid mixture of hydroxides, illite-K, a solid mixture of saponites, a solid mixture of trigonal carbonates and a solid mixture of orthorhombic carbonates. Analytical concentrations of major chemical elements and several trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Ba) in groundwaters were satisfactorily reproduced. In addition to these simulations, similar runs for a rhyolite, a latite and a trachyte permitted to calculate major oxide contents for the authigenic paragenesis which are comparable, to a first approximation, with the corresponding data measured for local altered rocks belonging to the silicic, advanced argillic and intermediate argillic alteration facies. The important role played by both the solid mixture of trigonal carbonates as sequestrator of Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni and the solid mixture of orthorhombic carbonates as scavenger of Sr and Ba is emphasized.
Luigi Marini (Corresponding author)Email:
  相似文献   
9.
福建海岛潮间带软体动物群落分布特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
福建海岛潮间带软体动物共鉴定248种,隶属于5纲78科161属,应用群落系数,等级聚类分析和极坐标排序研究软体动物落分布,结果表明,软体动物群落可分为3种类型,即河口型群落,近岸港湾群落和开阔海域群落,群落分布与海岛所处地理位置及其生境类型密切相关,盐度和水动力是重要的影响因子。  相似文献   
10.
毛蚶人工育苗技术   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
根据对毛蚶性腺发育、产卵孵化、浮游幼虫及稚贝习性等的研究,初步探索了其人工育苗中主要技术环节。2龄毛蚶全为雄性或雌雄同体,3龄以上群体雌性占70%以上。26.6~27.4℃,受精卵22h发育到D形幼虫;26.5~23.0℃,D形幼虫经过15天发育到眼点幼虫;25.O~20.0℃,投附着基、13天左右稚贝壳长达到600μm时,可以出池到室外进行中间育成。  相似文献   
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