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This paper examines the frameworks being developed to co-manage coral reefs in Kenya and Madagascar. The historical and social context, flexibility of rule-making, monitoring and enforcement, and how community-based organizations are nested within other organizations is described. A comparison of the degree to which these two frameworks contain 10 key design principles thought to be important for successful commons institutions is presented. Finally, recommendations are made for improving co-management in these countries. A principal finding is that both co-management frameworks were developed for other systems (terrestrial and lakes), which creates misfits for how marine systems can be managed.  相似文献
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The 4.5 km-long gravel beach fronting the exclusive resort of the city of Nice, on the French Riviera, in southeastern France, was artificially nourished from 1976 to 2005 to the tune of 558,000 m3, making this long-term operation one of the most significant for gravel beaches in the world. Nourishment has ranged from nil in certain years (1979, 1980, 1983–85, and 2001–2002) to a peak of over 97,000 m3 in 2000. Analyses of 50 transects covering the beach highlight no significant change in net beach width over this 30-year period of massive gravel nourishment. A Principal Components Analysis and a Cluster Analysis used to detect patterns in the 87 beach-width measurement dataset show no clear spatial trends in transect groups that can be interpreted in terms of the morphology of the beach and the steep inner shoreface. Significant wave height off Nice shows no change over the period 1979–2005. Since there is no possibility for alongshore gravel leakage on the strongly embayed Nice beach, the relative stability in beach width clearly implies loss of recharged gravel offshore. Gravel loss following nourishment is favoured by: (1) the steep inner shoreface inherited from the geological context of Nice beach at the flanks of the southern Alps, and (2) the practise of artificial beach widening through flattening, in summer, of a narrow (5–15 m-wide) mobile zone of the profile in order to enhance the ‘carrying’ capacity of this highly touristic beach. Beach widening and flattening following nourishment bring close to the very steep inner shoreface zone several cubic metres of gravel for each metre of beach that may be permanently lost downslope during autumn and winter storms. Recharged gravel is redistributed alongshore and offshore leakage is probably enhanced where small narrow submarine canyon heads impinge on the beach, resulting in a very narrow shoreface. Mean beach width shows an oscillating alongshore pattern that may be due to the influence of these canyons as pathways of gravel loss offshore. However, there is no correlation between mean beach width and distance to the 10-m isobath, used as a surrogate for inner shoreface width. Storms are associated with plunging waves that are particularly effective and concentrated, on this almost tideless shore, over the narrow mobile zone of the beach profile where a series of steep reflective berms are built during storms. The high dynamic pressures associated with this narrow zone of concentrated wave breaking, and energy reflection from the steepened profile, are deemed to contribute to the permanent downslope loss of gravel. This situation of long-term gravel loss is probably accepted by the beach management authority because of the low cost of obtaining nourishment material and the advantages derived from a temporarily wider beach in terms of recreational space.  相似文献
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沙滩质量评价是有效的沙滩管理工具。“蓝旗”标准是目前世界上认可度最高的沙滩评价标准。文章基于“蓝旗”标准,根据国内外已有沙滩质量评价体系,结合实地调研和问卷调查,构建适用于万平口沙滩的质量评价体系。评价结果表明:(1)万平口环境因素、安全与教育和环境管理准则层评价结果均为良好,社会因素准则层达到优质等级,说明万平口风景区作为旅游地,其气候条件适宜,服务水平和安全及教育水平都较为发达。(2)万平口沙滩的自然条件本底优良,是最能体现日照“蓝天、碧海、金沙滩”的特色景区。但由于自然及人为因素造成的沙滩侵蚀退化现象严重,影响了沙滩的可持续发展。根据评价结果及万平口与“蓝旗沙滩”的对比差异,认为万平口建设“蓝旗沙滩”,需要完善景区水质监测、加强景区内及周边环境管理、重视沙滩养护、完善基础设施的投放、进一步提高景区的服务水平、重视景区内安全保障及加强景区的宣传,提高公众对“蓝旗”的认知度。  相似文献
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海滩的稳定性及其演变是砂质海滩研究的重要内容。在全球砂质海滩普遍遭受侵蚀的背景下,分析部分稳定海滩的特征和原因可以为海滩维护和科学管理提供重要参考。本文基于近 11 年 (2010—2020 年) 青岛第一、第三和石老人海水浴场共 8 条典型剖面的实地监测高程数据,对海滩滩肩宽度和单宽体积进行计算对比,研究表明,除石老人海水浴场一个剖面变化较大外,其他剖面的滩肩宽度只变化了 0~14 m,是 11 年前的 0%~23.3%;单宽体积变化了 8.5~46.5 m3,是 11 年前的1.0%~9.4%;海滩剖面垂向扰动范围一般在 30~60 cm 范围内。海滩存在局部小尺度淤积或侵蚀,剖面形态总体较为稳定。海平面变化、台风和风暴潮等自然因素是海岸轻微侵蚀或调整的重要影响因素,但对海滩的优化管理 (包括定期监测海滩、适度展开养护、制定完善的管理政策和加强执行力度等人为因素) 可以应对这些海滩变化,并且已成为近年来该研究海滩保持稳定的关键因素。  相似文献
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