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以致病性溶藻弧菌为指示菌, 通过酸粗提、固相萃取、Sephadex G-25 柱凝胶层析和RP-HPLC 等分离纯化技术, 从大黄鱼胃肠组织中分离纯化抗菌肽。结果表明, 大黄鱼肠道组织中存在着多种抗菌物质, 并最终得到一种高纯度的新型抗菌肽 AMP-W3。AMP-W3 由 10 种氨基酸组成, 其中天冬氨酸、谷氨酸和甘氨酸的含量较高。AMP-W3 对溶藻弧菌的最低抑菌浓度介于 1.25—2.5?g/ml, 对人血红细胞的溶血浓度为 1.25?g/ml, 在酸性条件下的抗菌活性更强, 对革兰氏  相似文献
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为了发掘广西红树林根际土壤的放线菌资源,本文利用原位培养装置,埋于根际土壤中俘获放线菌,30 d后取回实验室,采用平板涂布法对4个地点的原位培养样品于15种培养基上进行分离纯化;对分离株基于16S rRNA基因序列进行系统发育分析;进一步进行抗菌活性和产酶活性检测.共分离得到113株放线菌.对其中33株放线菌进行测序,结果表明20株属于链霉菌属,11株属于拟诺卡氏菌属,1株属于伦兹氏菌属,1株与拟诺卡氏菌属相似性最高为90%,很可能属于放线菌一个新属.抗菌实验结果显示其中有7株、4株、18株、6株、10株、3株实验菌株分别对大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、普通变形杆菌、乙型溶血性链球菌和肺炎克雷伯氏菌具有抑制作用;有55株、62株、24株、72株的实验菌株分别具有纤维素酶活性、淀粉酶活性、胶原蛋白酶活性、酯酶活性.原位培养可以丰富对广西红树林根际土壤的认识,分离到了新种甚至可能是新属的放线菌,分离得到的部分放线菌菌株具有较高生物活性,为后续工作提供了良好的实验材料.  相似文献
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根据连续沥取实验结果及相关文献,富钴结壳的生长可用一个双阶段胶体-化学吸附模型来说明.第一阶段是混合胶体的形成及元素的清除与富集,富氧的底层水与缺氧、富Mn2+的中层水体混合,Mn2+被氧化而形成MnO2胶体,并与水柱中的Fe(OH)3、Al(OH)3、SiO2、Ti(OH)4等胶体形成多种混合胶体[MnO2-Fe(OH)3、Fe(OH)3-Ti(OH)4和Fe(OH)3-Al(OH)3-SiO2],后者根据各自的表面物理化学特征吸附和富集不同的元素;第二阶段是混合胶体的沉积及富钴结壳的生长,第一阶段形成的混合胶体在海山基岩上以氧化物或氢氧化物的形式沉积,吸附的元素结合进矿物点阵,然后通过自催化或自反馈的方式生长.在富钴结壳生长中,生物起着重要的作用,包括为富钴结壳的生长提供大量的成矿物质、对Mn2+的催化氧化作用及在铁锰胶体的沉淀及富钴结壳壳层的生长过程中的媒介作用.  相似文献
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基于2013年9月底至10月初在印尼爪哇岛南部海域调查得到的碳酸盐参数和相关水文数据,首次报道了该海域 pH 的分布,并重点探讨了南爪哇上升流(季风上升流)对其影响。结果显示上升流影响区表层 pH 低于周围非上升流影响区。通过两端元混合模型,定量讨论了上升流的物理输运和生物活动对 pH 的影响。研究表明,上升流的物理输运至少造成了海表层盐度增加0.4个单位,溶解无机碳(DIC)增加110μmol/kg,pH 降低约0.2个单位;同时,在上升流区,强烈的生物活动(叶绿素a 浓度大于0.4 mg/m3)使得 DIC 的降低量达70μmol/kg,pH 的增加量达0.15个单位。总体来看,该研究区域的物理输运作用大于生物作用,综合效应表现为 DIC 的增加和 pH 的降低。另外,同上升流的物理输运作用和生物作用相比,上升流引起的表层冷却和增盐对 pH 的影响较小(热力学作用)。  相似文献
5.
褐藻多糖硫酸酯(fucoidan,FPS)是所有褐藻中所固有的细胞间多糖,存在于细胞壁基质中。生长于潮间带、长时间与空气接触的褐藻种类中,如多年生的墨角藻(Fucus vesiculosus)类,其褐藻多糖硫酸酯的含量可高达20%;生长在较深处的海带(Saccharina japonica)类中含量较低,约为1%~2%。褐藻多糖硫酸酯是一类独特的结合有硫酸基的水溶性杂聚糖,其化学组成和结构非常复杂,以岩藻糖和硫酸基为主,随着褐藻的种类不同还含有半乳糖、木糖、糖醛酸等其他成分。褐藻多糖硫酸酯具有多种生物活性,目前针对墨角藻、泡叶藻(Ascophyllum nodosum)、鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbergii)等褐藻中的褐藻多糖硫酸酯研究较多,发现其具有免疫调节、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗凝血、抗氧化等生物活性。本文主要就褐藻多糖硫酸酯的提取、纯化、结构及生物活性等方面研究进行综述。  相似文献
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孔石莼是一种大型绿藻,在食品、药物等领域具有广泛应用。本文综述了近5年来孔石莼化学组分及其生物活性研究进展,并展望了其应用前景。  相似文献
7.
This paper evaluates the simultaneous measurement of dissolved gases (CO2 and O2/Ar ratios) by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) along the 180° meridian in the Southern Ocean. The calibration of pCO2 measurements by MIMS is reported for the first time using two independent methods of temperature correction. Multiple calibrations and method comparison exercises conducted in the Southern Ocean between New Zealand and the Ross Sea showed that the MIMS method provides pCO2 measurements that are consistent with those obtained by standard techniques (i.e. headspace equilibrator equipped with a Li–Cor NDIR analyser). The overall MIMS accuracy compared to Li–Cor measurements was 0.8 μatm. The O2/Ar ratio measurements were calibrated with air-equilibrated seawater standards stored at constant temperature (0 ± 1 °C). The reproducibility of the O2/Ar standards was better than 0.07% during the 9 days of transect between New Zealand and the Ross Sea.The high frequency, real-time measurements of dissolved gases with MIMS revealed significant small-scale heterogeneity in the distribution of pCO2 and biologically-induced O2 supersaturation (ΔO2/Ar). North of 65°S several prominent thermal fronts influenced CO2 concentrations, with biological factors also contributing to local variability. In contrast, the spatial variation of pCO2 in the Ross Sea gyre was almost entirely attributed to the biological utilization of CO2, with only small temperature effects. This high productivity region showed a strong inverse relationship between pCO2 and biologically-induced O2 disequilibria (r2 = 0.93). The daily sea air CO2 flux ranged from − 0.2 mmol/m2 in the Northern Sub-Antarctic Front to − 6.4 mmol/m2 on the Ross Sea shelves where the maximum CO2 influx reached values up to − 13.9 mmol/m2. This suggests that the Southern Ocean water (south of 58°S) acts as a seasonal sink for atmospheric CO2 at the time of our field study.  相似文献
8.
Biological activity is known to influence sediment strength at bed–water interfaces. However, its precise effect on geomorphology and on bed composition is not known. This paper proposes a parameterization of sediment destabilizing and stabilizing organisms on three parameters that describe the erosion and mixing processes of the sediment bed, namely the critical bed shear stress, the erosion coefficient and the bioturbation coefficient. This parameterization is included in a 3D sand–mud morphodynamic model to form the sand–mud–bio model. The performance of the sand–mud–bio model is demonstrated by testing it on the Paulinapolder intertidal flat in the Western Scheldt estuary of The Netherlands. Model results show that biological influences on sediment strength result in significant morphological change and bed composition variations. Destabilizing organisms always cause a significant decrease in mud content in the bed and an increase of erosion. On the other hand, stabilizing organisms can, but do not necessarily, cause an increase of mud content and additional sedimentation.  相似文献
9.
Using time series of hydrographic data in the wintertime and summertime obtained along 137°E from 1971 to 2000, we found that the average contents of nutrients in the surface mixed layer showed linear decreasing trends of 0.001∼0.004 μmol-PO4 l−1 yr−1 and 0.01∼0.04 μmol-NO3 l−1 yr−1 with the decrease of density. The water column Chl-a (CHL) and the net community production (NCP) had also declined by 0.27∼0.48 mg-Chl m−2 yr−1 and 0.08∼0.47 g-C-NCP m−2 yr−1 with a clear oscillation of 20.8±0.8 years. These changes showed a strong negative correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDO) with a time lag of 2 years (R = 0.89 ± 0.02). Considering the recent significant decrease of O2 over the North Pacific subsurface water, these findings suggest that the long-term decreasing trend of surface-deep water mixing has caused the decrease of marine biological activity in the surface mixed layer with a bidecadal oscillation over the western North Pacific.  相似文献
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