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1.
Microbial Diversity in Nankai Trough Sediments at a Depth of 3,843 m   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Dense populations of bivalves, primarily Calyptogena sp., were observed at cold seeps of the Nankai Trough. Bacterial input to the sediment was estimated through determination of phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid (PLFA) and DNA profiles. Results indicated a bacterial biomass of 109 cells (g dry wt)-1 while individual fatty acid profiles revealed a predominance of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly 18:1 isomers. The presence of these fatty acids can be interpreted to reflect a response to low temperature and a predominance of psychrophilic bacteria. DNA fragments encoding bacterial ribosomal RNA small-subunit sequences (16S rDNA) were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method using DNA extracted directly from the sediment samples. From the sequencing results, at least 19 kinds of bacterial 16S rDNAs related to mostly the Proteobacteria and a few gram-positive bacteria were identified. These results suggest that the bacterial community in the Nankai Trough sediments consists of mainly bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria , , and subdivisions. Bacteria belonging to the and subdivisions, which are known to include epibiont and sulfate reducing bacteria, respectively, were mostly detected in the sediment obtained from inside the area of the Calyptogena community, and the -Proteobacteria may function to supply reduced sulfur to bacterial endosymbionts of Calyptogena.  相似文献
2.
Life in the Slow Lane: Growth and Longevity of Cold-seep Vestimentiferans   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Abstract. Yearly, in situ growth of two species of cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworms was measured using a combination of banding and video analysis. A total of 53 animals from 15 different aggregations were included in the study, which was conducted over a Cyear period. The most common species, Lamellibrachia sp., grows very slowly (averaging 0.77 cm. a-1) and yet commonly reaches lengths over 2 m. Based on conservative calculations we conclude that individuals in mature aggregations are a minimum of 100 a old and are likely to be much older. Smaller numbers of a second species of vestimentiferan (related to escarpids) were also monitored over this period. We consider it likely that the individuals of the second species banded for this study were already on the plateau of their growth curve, and that the very low average growth rates recorded here would lead to an overestimate of the ages of the individuals used in this study. However, life history considerations combined with the extremely low measured growth rates of this species suggest it is also long-lived.  相似文献
3.
海底甲烷缺氧氧化与冷泉碳酸盐岩沉淀动力学研究进展   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
海底缺氧带甲烷氧化作用是一个重要的甲烷生物地球化学过程,已被许多地球化学现象所证实。甲烷缺氧氧化有效地减少了渗漏到海水和大气中的甲烷通量,但目前仅有的数据还不能很好地限定甲烷缺氧氧化在全球甲烷循环和全球碳循环中的作用。甲烷缺氧氧化的机理还存在争议,很可能是一个“反甲烷生成”过程。在许多天然气渗漏发育区域,由于甲烷缺氧氧化作用引起环境碱度的增加而沉淀冷泉碳酸盐岩,在海底表层沉积物中形成块状碳酸盐岩结壳。但冷泉碳酸盐岩生成所需的物理化学和生物地球化学条件在很大程度上还不清楚。数值计算表明,孔隙水中溶解足够量的甲烷、冷泉渗漏强度适中、较小的生物扰动作用有利于冷泉碳酸盐岩的生成,而过高的沉积速率则抑制冷泉碳酸盐岩结壳的生成。因此,海底发育冷泉碳酸盐岩可以指示天然气渗漏系统的演化特征。  相似文献
4.
冷泉渗漏区海底微生物作用及生物标志化合物   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
在有冷泉活动和水合物产出的海底环境中,甲烷氧化古细菌和硫酸盐还原细菌十分发育,它们主导着海底天然气(主要是甲烷)的缺氧氧化作用,并在海底碳循环和生物种群繁衍中发挥着重要作用。海底天然气渗漏活动区的甲烷氧化古细菌使渗漏CH4缺氧氧化为HCO3-,硫酸盐还原细菌使SO42-转化为HS-,从而使细菌微生物获得生命所需的能量,生物种群得以发育和繁衍。甲烷氧化古细菌有ANME-1、ANME-2、ANME-3三个种群,形成相应的醚类异戊二烯类和类异戊二烯烃类生物标志物。硫酸盐还原细菌有Desulfosarcina和Desulfococcus两个主要的细菌群落,形成二烃基甘油二醚和脂肪酸生物标志化合物。这种天然气渗漏区内微生物活动产生的生物标志化合物都具有特别负的碳同位素组成,δ13C值为-41.1‰~-95.6‰,说明微生物群落在生命代谢过程中摄取了来自甲烷的碳,同时也反映了天然气渗漏系统缺氧带存在的古细菌和硫酸盐还原细菌活动。  相似文献
5.
海底甲烷冷泉特征与冷泉生态系统的群落结构   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
海底冷泉及冷泉生态系统是现代海洋地质学和生物学研究的前沿领域,它提升了人类对深海资源的认识和利用,拓展了深海极端环境下生命的潜在界线。综述了海底甲烷冷泉的成因、冷泉喷发的类型及其特征,海底冷泉分布、形成的主要阶段(150—100Ma BP,42—28Ma BP和12Ma BP以来)以及指示海底冷泉系统的简要特征;综述了冷泉化能自养生态系统及其食物链构成和特征,专性种、潜在专性种和非专性种的生物组成及其特征,冷泉环境中有孔虫和轻小型底栖动物的主要变化;最后划分了我国近海的冷泉区(点)并简要介绍它们的分布和特征,为开展我国近海冷泉及其冷泉生物群落的调查和研究提供了基础资料。  相似文献
6.
本文对南海北部陆坡九龙甲烷礁采集的两个冷泉碳酸盐岩样品TVG-1和TVG-11进行了矿物学、岩石学和碳氧同位素分析研究。X射线衍射分析(XRD)结果表明,自生矿物主要为文石、白云石和高镁方解石等,碎屑矿物含量较少。TVG-11中存在大量的文石,而TVG-1只保留了已转化为方解石的文石假象,据此可以推断TVG-1的形成要早于TVG-11。扫描电镜(SEM)显微结构特征显示,自生矿物主要是通过细菌的厌氧氧化作用,直接从冷泉中沉淀出来的。碳、氧同位素测试结果显示,碳酸盐岩具有强δ^13C亏损和一定程度的δ^18O富集的特征,TVG-1和TVG-11的δ^13C值分别为-46.22%。和-52.88%,均低于-40%,表明碳源于微生物作用的甲烷厌氧氧化,是指示该海域存在冷泉的重要证据;TVG-1和TVG-11的δ^18O值分别为3.19‰和4.07‰,存在一定程度的δ^18O富集。碳氧同位素和矿物的显微结构特征都说明九龙甲烷礁碳酸盐岩是烃类渗漏微生物作用而形成的自生碳酸盐岩,可能是天然气水合物分解引起的沉积,显示该区存在水合物的可能性很大。  相似文献
7.
南海北部烟囱状冷泉碳酸盐岩的沉积环境分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
对南海北部陆坡具有圈层结构的烟囱状冷泉碳酸盐岩的岩石学、矿物学和地球化学特征进行了研究,结果表明:烟囱内外层具有明显不同的特征,内层碳酸盐含量比外层高,内层的碳酸盐矿物也更富含MgCO3,并且矿物颗粒较大,结晶程度较高;外层的铝、硅等陆源碎屑元素比内层含量高。内外层的碳、氧同位素也具有明显差别。对于研究的两个样品,内层的δ13 C分别为-40.80×10-3和-31.27×10-3,δ18 O分别为2.67×10-3和2.00×10-3,而外层的δ13 C分别为-31.26×10-3和-30.99×10-3,δ18 O分别为0.48×10-3和1.85×10-3。结合前人在该区域附近的研究结果认为,烟囱状碳酸盐岩具有内层比外层相对较负δ13C和较为富集δ18 O的特征。1mm间隔取样的δ13C和δ18 O剖面变化与烟囱状碳酸盐岩的圈层结构吻合较好,由外层至内层δ13C的变化范围为-27.50×10-3~-32.05×10-3,δ18 O的变化范围为0.78×10-3~2.34×10-3。外层6mm的δ13 C和δ18 O具有明显的负线性相关,相关系数r2为0.996 7。根据上述特征,讨论了渗漏甲烷流体的性质、扩散机制及对沉积环境的影响,推测具有圈层结构的烟囱状碳酸盐岩是由单一渗漏通道形成的,生长顺序有待进一步定年证实。烟囱外部6mm受海水影响较大。研究结果对于恢复南海北部陆坡甲烷渗漏系统、建立冷泉和热泉之间的联系具有一定意义。  相似文献
8.
9.
Two mud volcano fields were explored during the French–Dutch MEDINAUT cruise (1998) with the submersible NAUTILE, one south of Crete along the Mediteranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field) and the other south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) where high methane concentrations were measured. Chemosynthetic communities were observed and sampled on six mud volcanoes and along a fault scarp. The communities were dominated by bivalves of particularly small size, belonging to families commonly found at seeps (Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Thyasiridae) and to Lucinidae mostly encountered in littoral sulfide-rich sediments and at the shallowest seeps. Siboglinid polychaetes including a large vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. were also associated. At least four bivalve species and one siboglinid are associated with symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria, as evidenced by Transmission Electronic Microscopy and isotopic ratio measurements. Among the bivalves, a mytilid harbors both methanotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Video spatial analysis of the community distribution on three volcanoes shows that dense bivalve shell accumulations (mainly lucinids) spread over large areas, from 10% to 38% of the explored areas (2500–15000 m2) on the different volcanoes. Lamellibrachia sp. had different spatial distribution and variable density in the two mud volcano fields, apparently related with higher methane fluxes in the Anaximander volcanoes and maybe with the instability due to brines in the Olimpi area. The abundance and richness of the observed chemosynthetic fauna and the size of some of the species contrast with the poverty of the deep eastern Mediterranean. The presence of a specialized fauna, with some mollusk genera and species shared with other reduced environments of the Mediterranean, but not dominated by the large bivalves usually found at seeps, is discussed.  相似文献
10.
Fossil methane from the large and dynamic marine gas hydrate reservoir has the potential to influence oceanic and atmospheric carbon pools. However, natural radiocarbon (14C) measurements of gas hydrate methane have been extremely limited, and their use as a source and process indicator has not yet been systematically established. In this study, gas hydrate-bound and dissolved methane recovered from six geologically and geographically distinct high-gas-flux cold seeps was found to be 98 to 100% fossil based on its 14C content. Given this prevalence of fossil methane and the small contribution of gas hydrate (≤ 1%) to the present-day atmospheric methane flux, non-fossil contributions of gas hydrate methane to the atmosphere are not likely to be quantitatively significant. This conclusion is consistent with contemporary atmospheric methane budget calculations.In combination with δ13C- and δD-methane measurements, we also determine the extent to which the low, but detectable, amounts of 14C (~ 1–2% modern carbon, pMC) in methane from two cold seeps might reflect in situ production from near-seafloor sediment organic carbon (SOC). A 14C mass balance approach using fossil methane and 14C-enriched SOC suggests that as much as 8 to 29% of hydrate-associated methane carbon may originate from SOC contained within the upper 6 m of sediment. These findings validate the assumption of a predominantly fossil carbon source for marine gas hydrate, but also indicate that structural gas hydrate from at least certain cold seeps contains a component of methane produced during decomposition of non-fossil organic matter in near-surface sediment.  相似文献
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