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1.
南海北部烟囱状冷泉碳酸盐岩的沉积环境分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
对南海北部陆坡具有圈层结构的烟囱状冷泉碳酸盐岩的岩石学、矿物学和地球化学特征进行了研究,结果表明:烟囱内外层具有明显不同的特征,内层碳酸盐含量比外层高,内层的碳酸盐矿物也更富含MgCO3,并且矿物颗粒较大,结晶程度较高;外层的铝、硅等陆源碎屑元素比内层含量高。内外层的碳、氧同位素也具有明显差别。对于研究的两个样品,内层的δ13 C分别为-40.80×10-3和-31.27×10-3,δ18 O分别为2.67×10-3和2.00×10-3,而外层的δ13 C分别为-31.26×10-3和-30.99×10-3,δ18 O分别为0.48×10-3和1.85×10-3。结合前人在该区域附近的研究结果认为,烟囱状碳酸盐岩具有内层比外层相对较负δ13C和较为富集δ18 O的特征。1mm间隔取样的δ13C和δ18 O剖面变化与烟囱状碳酸盐岩的圈层结构吻合较好,由外层至内层δ13C的变化范围为-27.50×10-3~-32.05×10-3,δ18 O的变化范围为0.78×10-3~2.34×10-3。外层6mm的δ13 C和δ18 O具有明显的负线性相关,相关系数r2为0.996 7。根据上述特征,讨论了渗漏甲烷流体的性质、扩散机制及对沉积环境的影响,推测具有圈层结构的烟囱状碳酸盐岩是由单一渗漏通道形成的,生长顺序有待进一步定年证实。烟囱外部6mm受海水影响较大。研究结果对于恢复南海北部陆坡甲烷渗漏系统、建立冷泉和热泉之间的联系具有一定意义。  相似文献
2.
There are thousands of seeps in the deep ocean worldwide; however, many questions remain about their contributions to global biodiversity and the surrounding deep‐sea environment. In addition to being globally distributed, seeps provide several benefits to humans such as unique habitats, organisms with novel genes, and carbon regulation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are unique seep macrobenthic assemblages, by comparing seep and nonseep environments, different seep habitats, and seeps at different depths and locations. Infaunal community composition, diversity, and abundance were examined between seep and nonseep background environments and among three seep habitats (i.e., microbial mats, tubeworms, and soft‐bottom seeps). Abundances were higher at seep sites compared to background areas. Abundance and diversity also differed among microbial mat, tubeworm, and soft‐bottom seep habitats. Although seeps contained different macrobenthic assemblages than nonseep areas, infaunal communities were also generally unique for each seep. Variability was 75% greater within communities near seeps compared to communities in background areas. Thus, high variability in community structure characterized seep communities rather than specific taxa. The lack of similarity among seep sites supports the idea that there are no specific infauna that can be used as indicators of seepage throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico, at least at higher taxonomic levels.  相似文献
3.
Cold seeps are among the most heterogeneous of all continental margin habitats. Abiotic sources of heterogeneity in these systems include local variability in fluid flow, geochemistry, and substrate type, which give rise to different sets of microbial communities, microbial symbiont-bearing foundation species, and associated heterotrophic species. Biogenic habitats created by microbial mats and the symbiotic species including vesicomyid clams, bathymodiolin mussels, and siboglinid tubeworms add an additional layer of complexity to seep habitats. These forms of habitat heterogeneity result in a variety of macrofaunal and meiofaunal communities that respond to changes in structural complexity, habitat geochemistry, nutrient sources, and interspecific interactions in different ways and at different scales. These responses are predicted by a set of theoretical metacommunity models, the most appropriate of which for seep systems appears to be the 'species sorting' concept, an extension of niche theory. This concept is demonstrated through predictable patterns of community assembly, succession, and beta-level diversity. These processes are described using a newly developed analytical technique examining the change in the slope of the species accumulation curve with the number of habitats examined. The diversity response to heterogeneity has a consistent form, but quantitatively changes at different seep sites around the world as the types of habitats present and the size-classes of fauna analyzed change. The increase in beta diversity across seep habitat types demonstrates that cold seeps and associated biogenic habitats are significant sources of heterogeneity on continental margins globally.  相似文献
4.
5.
Assessing the relative contribution of local diversity to regional biodiversity may be the key to understanding large-scale and even global patterns in species diversity. Here, the contribution of habitat heterogeneity of cold seeps at three spatial scales [micro-scale (ms), macro-scale (10 to 100s of ms), and mega-scale (10 to 100s of km)] to the total nematode biodiversity (genus level) along the Norwegian continental margin is evaluated. Due to the development of higher resolution bathymetry and increased bottom sampling in recent years, continental margins, once regarded as monotonous landscapes, are now acknowledged to have a high degree of habitat complexity and diversity. By calculating the additive partitioning of gamma diversity in alpha and beta fractions, we examined to what extent habitat diversity of seep sites significantly increases the nematode genus composition and diversity at different spatial scales. Siboglinidae patches and control sediments yielded comparably high levels of nematode genus richness. They exhibited low turnover rates within and across the different seep sites. In contrast, the bacterial mats at Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) and the reduced sediments at the Nyegga pockmarks harboured genus-poor nematode communities with an equally high dominance of one or two species, which were different for each seep. Different habitats, in particular at the HMMV, contributed significantly to the seep nematode richness. This study demonstrates that the presence of distinct habitat types within multiple seep sites contributes to the high diversity of nematode communities inhabiting the seeps in the Norwegian deep sea.  相似文献
6.
基因组大小(或称C值)作为生物单倍体细胞中全套染色体的DNA总量,在一定程度上是恒定的,因而C值可以作为生物物种的一个特定参数。深海热液和冷泉为更好地理解C值与不同环境之间的关系提供了一个特征性的模型。本文采用流式细胞术,测定了来自热液和冷泉环境中的10种深海无脊椎动物的C值,其分布范围从0.87 pg到12.28 pg,其中,相比于软体动物和多毛类,甲壳生物基因组大小及变异均较大。对比热液和冷泉两个群落中共有种(深海偏顶蛤Bathymodiolus platifrons、柯氏潜铠虾Shinkaia crosnieri以及长角阿尔文虾Alvinocaris longirostris)的基因组大小,发现C值差异并不显著。同时,综合已有的数据,对深海化能极端环境与其他环境条件下的物种C值进行对比分析,结果显示深海化能极端环境下生物的基因组大小并没有发现明确的变化趋势。  相似文献
7.
Fossil methane from the large and dynamic marine gas hydrate reservoir has the potential to influence oceanic and atmospheric carbon pools. However, natural radiocarbon (14C) measurements of gas hydrate methane have been extremely limited, and their use as a source and process indicator has not yet been systematically established. In this study, gas hydrate-bound and dissolved methane recovered from six geologically and geographically distinct high-gas-flux cold seeps was found to be 98 to 100% fossil based on its 14C content. Given this prevalence of fossil methane and the small contribution of gas hydrate (≤ 1%) to the present-day atmospheric methane flux, non-fossil contributions of gas hydrate methane to the atmosphere are not likely to be quantitatively significant. This conclusion is consistent with contemporary atmospheric methane budget calculations.In combination with δ13C- and δD-methane measurements, we also determine the extent to which the low, but detectable, amounts of 14C (~ 1–2% modern carbon, pMC) in methane from two cold seeps might reflect in situ production from near-seafloor sediment organic carbon (SOC). A 14C mass balance approach using fossil methane and 14C-enriched SOC suggests that as much as 8 to 29% of hydrate-associated methane carbon may originate from SOC contained within the upper 6 m of sediment. These findings validate the assumption of a predominantly fossil carbon source for marine gas hydrate, but also indicate that structural gas hydrate from at least certain cold seeps contains a component of methane produced during decomposition of non-fossil organic matter in near-surface sediment.  相似文献
8.
本文对南海北部陆坡九龙甲烷礁采集的两个冷泉碳酸盐岩样品TVG-1和TVG-11进行了矿物学、岩石学和碳氧同位素分析研究。X射线衍射分析(XRD)结果表明,自生矿物主要为文石、白云石和高镁方解石等,碎屑矿物含量较少。TVG-11中存在大量的文石,而TVG-1只保留了已转化为方解石的文石假象,据此可以推断TVG-1的形成要早于TVG-11。扫描电镜(SEM)显微结构特征显示,自生矿物主要是通过细菌的厌氧氧化作用,直接从冷泉中沉淀出来的。碳、氧同位素测试结果显示,碳酸盐岩具有强δ^13C亏损和一定程度的δ^18O富集的特征,TVG-1和TVG-11的δ^13C值分别为-46.22%。和-52.88%,均低于-40%,表明碳源于微生物作用的甲烷厌氧氧化,是指示该海域存在冷泉的重要证据;TVG-1和TVG-11的δ^18O值分别为3.19‰和4.07‰,存在一定程度的δ^18O富集。碳氧同位素和矿物的显微结构特征都说明九龙甲烷礁碳酸盐岩是烃类渗漏微生物作用而形成的自生碳酸盐岩,可能是天然气水合物分解引起的沉积,显示该区存在水合物的可能性很大。  相似文献
9.
Following the discovery of asphalt volcanism in the Campeche Knolls a research cruise was carried out in 2006 to unravel the nature of the asphalt deposits at Chapopote. The novel results support the concept that the asphalt deposits at the seafloor in 3000 m of water depth originate from the seepage of heavy petroleum with a density slightly greater than water. The released petroleum forms characteristic flow structures at the seafloor with surfaces that are ‘ropy’ or ‘rough’ similar to magmatic lava flows. The surface structures indicate that the viscosity of the heavy petroleum rapidly increases after extrusion due to loss of volatiles. Consequently, the heavy petroleum forms the observed asphalt deposit and solidifies. Detailed survey with a remotely operated vehicle revealed that the asphalts are subject to sequential alterations: e.g. volume reduction leading to the formation of visible cracks in the asphalt surface, followed by fragmentation of the entire deposit. While relatively fresh asphalt samples were gooey and sticky, older, fragmented pieces were found to be brittle without residual stickiness. Furthermore, there is evidence for petroleum seepage from below the asphalt deposits, leading to local up-doming and, sometimes, to whip-shaped extrusions. Extensive mapping by TV-guided tools of Chapopote Asphalt Volcano indicates that the main asphalt deposits occur at the south-western rim that borders a central, crater-like depression. The most recent asphalt deposit at Chapopote is the main asphalt field covering an area of ∼2000 m2. Asphalt volcanism is distinct from oil and gas seepage previously described in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere because it is characterized by episodic intrusions of semi-solid hydrocarbons that spread laterally over a substantial area and produce structures with significant vertical relief. As Chapopote occurs at the crest of a salt structure it is inferred that asphalt volcanism is a secondary result of salt tectonism.  相似文献
10.
从鄂霍次克海沉积物样品中提取总基因组DNA,进行核糖体rRNA基因内转录间隔区(ITS)的扩增,构建克隆文库并进行测序,对该环境下真核生物的多样性进行了初步研究。结果发现,该环境下的真核生物具有较高的多样性,主要为3大类,真核藻类、真菌和微型浮游动物。藻类和微型浮游动物的组成与前人在该海域浮游生物生态学的研究相吻合,而真菌群落具有较高的多样性,这为该区域真核生物多样性、所参与的生物地球化学过程及生态学意义的研究奠定了基础。  相似文献
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