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1.
Phytoplankton trends in the Baltic Sea   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:9  
2.
采用高通量454焦磷酸测序方法对宁波沿海2个重点排污口、8个一般排污口的20个站位水样进行分析,得到2011年的3月、5月、8月和10月份各排污口蓝藻门生物的分布情况。研究结果表明:宁波沿海陆源排污口中叶绿体目(Chloroplast 目)生物数量最多占91.857%,集球藻目(Synechococcophycideae)和颤藻亚目(Oscillatoriophycideae)含量相对较多,分别占5.70%和1.79%;排污口中叶绿体目生物数量季节性差异比较大,3月份、8月份数量相对较多,5月份和10月份较少,推测叶绿体目生物数量与季节性温度变化有关; 各排污口污染物、蓝藻检出量和种类有一定差异,氮磷含量高的排污口(如S9号)蓝藻检出量并不高,推测蓝藻的检出量与排污口的主要污染物中氨氮含量没有直接关系,而受氮磷比的影响,不同种类的蓝藻细菌生长需要的氮磷比也不同。  相似文献
3.
Distribution of cyanobacteria cannot be evaluated using chlorophyll a (Chla) in vivo fluorescence, as most of their Chla is located in non-fluorescing photosystem I. Phycobilin fluorescence, in turn, is noted as a useful tool in the detection of cyanobacterial blooms. We applied phycocyanin (PC) fluorometer in the monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. For the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, PC fluorescence maximum was identified using the excitation–emission fluorescence matrix. Consequently, the optical setup of our instrument was noted to be appropriate for the detection of PC, and with minor or no interference from Chla and phycoerythrin fluorescence, respectively.During summer 2005, the instrument was installed on a ferryboat commuting between Helsinki (Finland) and Travemünde (Germany), and data were collected during 32 transects providing altogether 200 000 fluorescence records. PC in vivo fluorescence was compared with Chla in vivo fluorescence and turbidity measured simultaneously, and with Chla concentration and biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria determined from discrete water samples.PC fluorescence showed a linear relation to the biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria, and the other sources of PC fluorescence are considered minor in the open Baltic Sea. Estimated by PC fluorescence, cyanobacterial bloom initiated late June at the Northern Baltic Proper, rapidly extended to the central Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, and peaked in the mid-July with values up to 10 mg l−1 (fresh weight). In late July, bloom vanished in most areas.During single transects, or for the whole summer, the variability in Chla concentrations was explained more by PC fluorescence than by Chla fluorescence. Thus, filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the overall variability in phytoplankton biomass. Consequently, we show that during the cyanobacterial blooms, the estimation of Chla concentration using only Chla in vivo fluorescence is not applicable, but PC in vivo fluorescence is required as a predictor as well.  相似文献
4.
海洋蓝细菌在微食物环中作用的初步研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:7  
肖天  张武昌  王荣 《海洋科学》1999,23(5):48-51
在渤海,汇泉湾小型浮浮动物对蓝细菌有明显的捕食压力,春季,有小型浮游动物的实验水体中蓝细菌的日生长率为0.02-0.28/d,甭除小型浮游动物的实验水体中蓝细菌的日生长率为0.38-0.70d。  相似文献
5.
Tower-based radiometric observations at a coastal site in the Baltic Proper   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
An autonomous above-water radiometer was operated during the summer of 2005 on the Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse Tower (GDLT) off the Swedish coast in the Baltic Proper. Normalized water leaving radiances, LWN(λ), produced from measurements performed with the autonomous system at various center-wavelengths λ in the 412–675 nm spectral range, were applied within the context of water quality monitoring and satellite ocean color validation activities. Specifically these in situ radiometric data were used to determine the chlorophyll a concentration through a regional band-ratio algorithm and to assess LWN(λ) derived from top-of-atmosphere Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. The in situ measurements collected during a bloom occurring in July 2005 were also used to investigate the spectral and small scale temporal-spatial variability of LWN(λ) in the presence of cyanobacteria.  相似文献
6.
Laboratory experiments on the New Zealand freshwater mussel Echyridella menziesii were used to investigate the short-term effects (7–8 days) of food type on rates of biodeposition and benthic substrate respiration. Post-feeding biodeposition rates ranged from 0.34 to 1.52?mg?g?1?h?1 (mean?=?0.50?mg g?1?h?1) and were unaffected by the addition of toxin-producing Microcystis. Addition of suspended sediment (30?mg?L?1) visibly altered substrate composition, and increased total and inorganic biodeposit production rates by 24–33% compared to mussels fed commercial phytoplankton stock. Biodeposition rates of mussels in lake bed substrates were 38% higher than those in silica sand for identical feeding regimes, suggesting that a significant proportion of material produced in this experiment could have been derived from feeding on organic matter in the lake bed sediments. Respiration rates were higher in treatments with Microcystis but were unaffected by the presence of mussels. This laboratory study suggests that biodeposition by E. menziesii is resilient to short-term exposure to Microcystis, and highlights the ability of mussels to alter benthic substrate composition by incorporating suspended sediment into substrates.  相似文献
7.
在查阅国内外大量文献资料的基础上,回顾与综述了微生物碳酸盐岩近几年的研究现状及进展。微生物碳酸盐岩是由钙化微生物(蓝绿菌、微藻等)在微生物作用、沉积作用及成岩作用的共同作用下形成的,其种类繁多,包括叠层石、凝块石、树形石、均一石、核形石和纹理石等。它在各个地质历史时期均有发育,但主要繁盛于中新元古代和早古生代;自显生宙以来,随着后生动物的繁育微生物碳酸盐岩总体呈衰退趋势。另外,微生物对白云石的直接沉淀、碳酸盐泥丘及第五类原生沉积构造的形成具有重要作用。近年来,对微生物碳酸盐岩研究的发展使得碳酸盐岩的成因及分类得到了补充与完善。  相似文献
8.
We investigated the phytoplankton dynamics (determined by CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigment data) and its relationships with nutrients and water column structure, during two oceanographic cruises in May–June and September 2006 in the Gulf of Gabes (south-eastern Mediterranean). The May–June cruise coincided with the beginning of the summer stratification, while a strong stratification occurred in September with a more than 30 m deepening of the thermocline, and a reduction of the euphotic depth. This strong stratification resulted in a shift in nitrogen sources from nitrates to ammonium as well as phosphate depletion (0.2 μM) and a decrease in silicate concentrations (<2 μM). With the exception of chlorophyll a, pigment concentrations were higher in September than in May–June samplings. The pico- and nanophytoplankton were the major contributors to phytoplankton total biomass, accounting for 90% and 87% of total chlorophyll a in May–June and September, respectively. Picoplankton persisted throughout the entire survey, occupying different depth layers. Chlorophytes were present at substantial amounts (average 23% of total chlorophyll a) during May–June; however, they declined in September (average 5%). Diatoms were overall poorly represented in this study (2% of total chlorophyll a), due probably to silicate shortage. Apparently, the nutrient availability, but also the water column stability seemed to be among the major factors determining phytoplankton dynamics. Indeed, cyanobacteria were prominent in surface samples during the period of strong stratification, whereas the relative contribution of chlorophytes decreased, probably due to low phosphate availability.  相似文献
9.
In July 2007, phosphorus input by an upwelling event along the east coast of Gotland Island and the response of filamentous cyanobacteria were studied to determine whether introduced phosphorus can intensify cyanobacterial bloom formation in the eastern Gotland Basin. Surface temperature, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass and its stoichiometry, as well as phosphate uptake rates were determined in two transects between the coasts of Gotland and Latvia and in a short grid offshore of Gotland. In the upwelling area, surface temperatures of 11–12 °C and average dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations of 0.26 μM were measured. Outside the upwelling, surface temperatures were higher (15.5–16.6 °C) and DIP supplies in the upper 10 m layer were exhausted. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations (0.01–0.22 μM) were very low within and outside the upwelling region. Abundances of filamentous cyanobacteria were highly reduced in the upwelling area, accounting for only 1.4–6.0% of the total phytoplankton biomass, in contrast to 18–20% outside the upwelling. The C:P ratio of filamentous cyanobacteria varied between 32.8 and 310 in the upwelling region, most likely due to the introduction of phosphorus-depleted organisms into the upwelling water. These organisms accumulate DIP in upwelling water and have lower C:P ratios as long as they remain in DIP-rich water. Thus, diazotrophic cyanobacteria benefit from phosphorus input directly in the upwelling region. Outside the upwelling region, the C:P ratios of filamentous cyanobacteria varied widely, between 240 and 463, whereas those of particulate material in the water ranged only between 96 and 224. To reduce their C:P ratio from 300 to 35, cyanobacteria in the upwelling region had to take up 0.05 mmol m−3 DIP, which is about 20% of the available DIP. Thus, a larger biomass of filamentous cyanobacteria may be able to benefit from a given DIP input. As determined from the DIP uptake rates measured in upwelling cells, the time needed to reduce the C:P ratio from 300 to 35 was too long to explain the huge bloom formations that typically occur in summer. However, phosphorus uptake rates increased significantly with increasing C:P ratios, allowing phosphorus accumulation within 4–5 days, a span of time suitable for bloom formation in July and August.  相似文献
10.
Few phosphorus-depleted coastal ecosystems have been examined for their ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoesters. We examined seasonal (August 2006–April 2007) alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay, a phosphorus-limited shallow estuary, using fluorescent substrate at low concentrations (≤2.0 μM). In situ dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus levels and phosphomonoester concentrations were also determined. Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was partitioned into two particulate size fractions (>1.2 and 0.2–1.2 μm) and freely dissolved enzymes (<0.2 μm). Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was also compared to leaf and epiphyte activity of the dominant tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Our results indicate: (1) potential alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay is high compared to other marine ecosystems, resulting in rapid phosphomonoester turnover times (2 h). (2) Water column alkaline phosphatase activity dominates, and is split equally between particulate and dissolved fractions. (3) Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest during cyanobacterial blooms, but not when normalized to chl a. These results suggest that dissolved, heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaline phosphatase activity is stimulated by phytoplankton blooms. (4) The dissolved alkaline phosphatase activity is relatively constant, while the particulate activity is seasonally and spatially dynamic, typically associated with phytoplankton blooms. (5) Phosphomonoester concentrations throughout the bay are low, even though potential hydrolysis rates are high. We propose that bioavailable dissolved organic P is hydrolyzed by dissolved and microbial alkaline phosphatase enzymes in Florida Bay. High alkaline phosphatase activity in the bay is also promoted by long hydraulic residence times. This background activity is primarily driven by carbon and phosphorus limitation of microorganisms, and regeneration of enzymes associated with cell lysis. Pulses of inorganic phosphorus and labile organic phosphorus and nitrogen may stimulate autotrophs, particularly cyanobacteria, which in turn promote biological activity that increase alkaline phosphatase activity of both autotrophs and heterotrophs in the bay.  相似文献
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