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1.
During late winter and spring of 2002 and 2003, 24, 2–3 day cruises were conducted to Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA, to examine the grazing, egg production, and hatching success rates of adult female Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus newmani. The results of the copepod grazing experiments for C. pacificus are discussed here. Each week, copepod grazing incubation experiments from two different depth layers were conducted. Grazing was measured by both changes in chlorophyll concentration and cell counts. In 2002, there was one moderate bloom consisting mainly of Thalassiosira spp. in early February, and a larger bloom in April comprised of two Chaetoceros species and Phaeocystis sp. Similarly, in 2003, there were two blooms, an early one dominated by Thalassiosira spp., and a later one consisting of Chaetoceros spp. and Thalassiosira spp. Clearance rates on individual prey species, as calculated by cell counts, showed that C. pacificus are highly selective in their feeding, and may have much higher clearance rates on individual taxa than rates calculated from bulk chlorophyll disappearance. During weeks of high phytoplankton concentration, the copepods generally ate phytoplankton. However, they often rejected the most abundant phytoplankton species, particularly certain Thalassiosira spp., even though the rejected prey were often of the same genus and similar size to the preferred prey. It is speculated that this avoidance may be related to the possible deleterious effects that certain of these diatom species have on the reproductive success of these copepods. During weeks of medium to low phytoplankton concentration, the copepods selectively ate certain species of phytoplankton, and often had high electivity for microzooplankton. The selection mechanism must consist of active particle rejection most likely based on detection of surface chemical properties, since the diatoms that were selected were of the same genus, nearly the same size, and at lower numerical abundance than those cells that were avoided. The grazing choices made by these copepods may have important consequences for the overall ecosystem function within coastal and estuarine systems through changes in the transfer efficiency of energy to higher trophic levels.  相似文献
2.
While numerous laboratory studies in the last decade have shown that diatoms can induce reproductive failure in copepods, field evidence for a negative diatom effect is equivocal. To unambiguously elucidate the effects diatoms have on copepod reproduction in situ, we undertook a study of the abundance, distribution, grazing rates, and reproductive success of Calanus pacificus in Dabob Bay, Washington, USA, during two spring bloom periods. We simultaneously measured the phytoplankton composition, abundance, and distribution. Here we present results for the reproductive success of C. pacificus using four measurements: egg production rate, clutch size, egg hatching success, and naupliar survival (to the first feeding stage). Egg production rate was positively correlated with chlorophyll a concentration, and egg hatching success and naupliar survival were usually greater than 80%. However, in February 2002 and 2003 – during blooms of diatoms of the genus Thalassiosira – either egg hatching success, naupliar survival, or both were significantly depressed compared to other times in spring and summer. These effects, combined with evidence that C. pacificus was grazing aldehyde-producing Thalassiosira at the time of their blooms, indicate that diatoms can negatively affect copepod reproduction in the field, albeit only under specific circumstances and for brief periods.  相似文献
3.
During late winter and spring of 2002 and 2003, 24 two- to three-day cruises were conducted to Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA, to examine the grazing, egg production, and hatching success rates of adult female Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus newmani. Here, we discuss the results of our grazing experiments for P. newmani. Each week, we conducted traditional microzooplankton dilution experiments and “copepod dilution” experiments, each from two different layers. Grazing was measured by changes in chlorophyll concentration and direct cell counts. Clearance rates on individual prey species, as calculated by cell counts, showed that Pseudocalanus are highly selective in their feeding, and may have much higher grazing rates on individual taxa than calculated from bulk chlorophyll disappearance. The grazing rates of the copepods, however, are typically an order of magnitude lower than the grazing rates of the microzooplankton community, or the growth rates of the phytoplankton. P. newmani ingested diatoms, but, at certain times fed preferentially on microzooplankton, such as ciliates, tintinnids, and larger dinoflagellates. Removal of the microzooplankton may have released the other phytoplankton species from grazing pressure, allowing those species’ abundance to increase, which was measured as an apparent “negative” grazing on those phytoplankton species. The net result of grazing on some phytoplankton species, while simultaneously releasing others from grazing pressure resulted in bulk chlorophyll-derived estimates of grazing which were essentially zero or slightly negative; thus bulk chlorophyll disappearance is a poor indicator of copepod grazing. Whether copepods can significantly release phytoplankton from the grazing pressure by microzooplankton in situ, thus causing a trophic cascade, remains to be verified, but is suggested by our study.  相似文献
4.
During 24, three-day cruises to Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA, from February 4 to April 26, 2002, and February 4 to May 1 2003, we examined the relative growth and grazing rates of phytoplankton and microzooplankton using dilution experiments. Experiments were conducted over two time intervals: 8–10 h during the nighttime only, or 24 h from noon to noon. We used water from two depths during each cruise: from the surface mixed layer, and from a deep layer below the seasonal thermocline. During 2002, there was one mid-sized bloom consisting mainly of Thalassiosira spp. in early February, and a larger bloom in April comprised of two Chaetoceros spp. and Phaeocystis sp. During 2003, there were also two blooms, one in early February, which was again dominated by Thalassiosira spp., and a second larger bloom in mid-April, comprised mainly of Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp. During all four of these blooms, and for both water source depths, specific grazing rates of microzooplankton were most often as high or higher than the calculated phytoplankton specific growth rates. The major microzooplankton categories that could have accounted for this were (1) a large Gyrodinium spp., (2) a group of fusiform-shaped mid-sized Protoperidinium species, and (3) three loosely defined taxonomic groups consisting of naked ciliates, tintinnids, and unidentified heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Based on our measurements, it appears that the microzooplankton community grazing pressure can often exert significant control on phytoplankton biomass, even during the extremely productive spring bloom periods and under several different diatom-dominated bloom types. These results suggest that even in highly productive estuarine ecosystems, which are often nurseries to economically important fisheries species, microzooplankton play a critical role and may significantly alter the availability and efficiency of transfer of energy to higher trophic levels.  相似文献
5.
Phytoplankton species composition was analyzed inside and outside of the iron-enriched patch during the SEEDS experiment. Before the iron-enrichment, the phytoplankton community consisted of similar proportions of pico-, nano- and micro-sized phytoplankton, and the micro-phytoplankton was dominated by the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia turgidula. Although all the diatoms, except the nano-sized Fragilariopsis sp., increased during the two weeks of the observation period, the flora in the patch dramatically changed with the increase of phytoplankton biomass to a centric diatom-dominated community. Neritic diatoms, especially Chaetoceros debilis, showed higher growth rates than other diatoms, without any delay in the initiation of growth after the enrichment, and accounted for 90% of the micro-phytoplankton after day 9. In contrast, the oceanic diatoms showed distinct delays in the initiation of growth. We conclude that the responses of the diatoms to the manipulation of iron concentration were different by species, and the fast and intensive response of the phytoplankton to iron-enrichment resulted from the presence of a small amount of neritic diatoms at the study site. The important factors that determine the dominant species in the bloom are the potential growth rates under an iron-replete condition and the growth lag. Abundant species in the patch are widely distributed in the North Pacific and their relative contributions in the Oyashio area and at Stn KNOT are high from spring to summer. However, a characteristic difference of species composition between the SEEDS bloom and natural blooms was the lack of Thalassiosira and Coscinodiscus species in the patch, which usually account for a major part of the phytoplankton community under blooming conditions in the western North Pacific.  相似文献
6.
Phytoplankton trends in the Baltic Sea   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:9  
7.
Winter-spring phytoplankton blooms in Dabob Bay, Washington   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:4  
Scientific investigations in Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA, have been extensive since the early 1960s, but phytoplankton blooms have been studied mostly with regard to chlorophyll concentrations and little is known about the phytoplankton species themselves. Here we provide information on the species present, their abundances during blooms, their contribution to organic carbon concentrations and the ability of some phytoplankton species to produce toxic aldehydes that may impact metazoan grazers.Multiple blooms of phytoplankton, dominated by diatoms, occurred in the late winter-early spring period, with depth-integrated chlorophyll levels ranging from <20 to 230 mg m−2 and peaks in February and April. The major bloom species included Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp; Phaeocystis cf. pouchetii occurred in 2002 and 2004. Other taxa or groups of organisms that were sometimes abundant included unidentified small flagellates <10 μm in size and unidentified heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Large diatoms usually comprised most of the cell carbon, but a large, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, identified only as Gyrodinium “tear” because of its shape, was a major contributor to the microplankton carbon when present even in small numbers. Five Thalassiosira species and S. costatum were found to produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) that are known to affect copepod reproduction and hatching success. Our findings are similar to the few previous studies in the last four decades that included phytoplankton species and suggest long-term similarities and relative stability in the phytoplankton species present and their timing in Dabob Bay.  相似文献
8.
通过对南海北部和中部两套时间序列沉积物捕获器中的颗粒物样品进行硅藻分析,揭示了南海北部和中部硅藻通量的季节变化规律及其区域差异和各自对东亚季风气候的响应。研究表明在南海北部和中部海域,硅藻通量可以在一定程度上指示海洋初级生产力水平,其中南海北部硅藻通量明显低于中部,这可能与北部颗粒物样品采集期间发生的El Niño事件有关;南海北部和中部硅藻通量均存在明显的季节性变化规律,其中东亚冬季风对南海北部海域硅藻的生长有着显著影响,而南海中部则受夏季西南季风的影响更为强烈;南海北部深层硅藻通量高于浅层,这表明南海北部可能存在较强的深层流作用。  相似文献
9.
白令海特征区域的表层沉积硅藻分布及其古海洋学意义   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
对白令海表层沉积物样品进行硅藻分析,共鉴定硅藻30属56种(含变种),并确定17种硅藻新记录,其中包括Kisseieviella carina等3种化石种。白令海表层沉积物中的硅藻优势种为Neodenticula seminae,Fragilariopsis cylindrusFragilariopsis oceanica,在白令海北部陆坡深水区附近以Neodenticula seminae为主,而在白令海北部陆架以Fragilariopsis cylindrusFragilariopsis oceanica为主。对硅藻结果进行聚类分析,可以划分出3个硅藻组合,硅藻组合Ⅰ代表海冰种硅藻组合,组合Ⅱ代表受阿拉斯加流影响的大洋浮游硅藻组合,组合Ⅲ代表上述两个硅藻组合之间的过渡组合。Fossula arctica是17种硅藻新记录之一,首次记录于白令海表层沉积物中,其百分含量分布趋势与Fragilariopsis cylindrusFragilariopsis oceanica的相近,在白令海北部陆架为11.7%~17.1%,而在陆坡深水区附近明显减少,是继Fragilariopsis cylindrusFragilariopsis oceanica之后白令海又一海冰指示种,并有望成为一种有效的海冰变化替代物运用于晚第四纪以来白令海海冰进退历史研究。  相似文献
10.
福建漳江口红树林保护区浮游植物群落的季节变化研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:2  
于2001年1月~2003年1月对福建省漳江口红树林区水体浮游植物群落的季节变化进行了研究。结果表明,漳江口红树林区浮游植物以硅藻门种类为主,优势种为长菱形藻(Nitzschia longissima)和菱形藻(Nitzschia sp.1)等,同时出现多种裸藻、绿藻和甲藻。本次调查共鉴定到浮游植物31属87种(包括变种),其中硅藻门23属75种(包括变种),蓝藻门3属3种,绿藻门1属4种,金藻门1属1种,甲藻门2属2种,裸藻门1属2种。浮游植物密度变化范围为2.78×104~1.14×106个/L,平均为3.51×105个/L,季节变化为双峰型。出现大量的底栖硅藻和淡水性藻类是该水域浮游植物的一个特点。浮游植物的组成和结构表明该水域水质较好。  相似文献
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