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1.
皖南第四纪风尘堆积序列粒度特征及其意义   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:32  
通过系统采样与粒度测试,在同北方黄土充分对比的基础上分析和讨论了皖南第四纪风尘堆积序列的粒度特征,并根据堆积物的粒度与古气候-环境之间的内在联系,对该地区气候环境的演变及风尘堆积物的物源变迁等问题进行了初步探讨和分析。  相似文献
2.
深海沉积物中的热液组分能够记录附近的热液活动。本研究对超慢速扩张的西南印度洋中脊表层沉积物进行了主量、微量以及稀土元素分析,检测沉积物中是否有热液组分的存在。表层沉积物均以生物碳酸盐软泥为主,CaO的含量介于85.5%至89.9%之间(去除挥发份后)。经~5%稀盐酸去除沉积物中生物成因的碳酸钙后,其残留物与上地壳具有近似的SiO2、Al2O3、CaO、MgO、碱金属(Rb和Cs)以及高场强元素(Nb、Ta、Zr、Hf和Ti)组成。这些“岩屑元素”并非来源于附近的火山碎屑,而主要来自澳大利亚大陆的风尘砂。此外,该残留物与上地壳相比具有显著的正Eu异常,这与陆源碎屑正好相反。而正Eu异常是海底热液流体以及热液沉淀物的典型特征,再加上残留物具有富集Fe、Mn和Ba的特征,推测沉积物中有热液组分的加入。二元混合计算结果显示残留物中热液组分的贡献超过50%。由于沉积物中并没有观察到热液沉淀物互层的现象,排除了热液组分来自附近垮塌烟囱体的可能,最有可能的解释是低温弥散流的矿化。对于断层和裂隙较为发育的慢速或超慢速扩张脊(如西南印度洋中脊),广泛存在的低温弥散流在洋壳浅部的矿化潜力有可能被严重低估。  相似文献
3.
Multivariate statistical analysis on the kaolinite/chlorite ratios from 20 South Atlantic sediment cores allowed for the extraction of two processes controlling the fluctuations of the kaolinite/chlorite ratio during the last 130,000 yrs, (1) the relative strength of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) inflow into the South Atlantic Ocean and (2) the influx of aeolian sediments from the south African continent. The NADW fluctuation can be traced in the entire deep South Atlantic while the dust signal is restricted to the vicinity of South Africa. Our data indicate that NADW formation underwent significant changes in response to glacial/interglacial climate changes with enhanced export to the Southern Hemisphere during interglacials. The most pronounced phases with Enhanced South African Dust Export (ESADE) occurred during cold Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5d and across the Late Glacial/Holocene transition from 16 ka to 4 ka (MIS 2 to 1). This particular pattern is attributed to the interaction of Antarctic Sea Ice extent, the position of the westerlies and the South African monsoon system.  相似文献
4.
万世明  徐兆凯 《海洋与湖沼》2017,48(6):1208-1219
研究海底风尘组份、来源和通量的地质记录,对于理解风尘在行星辐射平衡、全球大洋的营养盐供应及碳循环中的作用,以及源区古气候和古大气环流重建有着非常重要的意义。作为全球第二大风尘源区的亚洲内陆,其风尘产物主要被东亚冬季风及西风带携带至西太平洋。现有西太平洋风尘沉积记录的工作主要集中在冰期-间冰期时间尺度,尤其近几年在西菲律宾海和赤道太平洋第四纪风尘物源及通量变化方面取得了重要的进展,在日本海中新世以来的长期风尘记录及其驱动机制方面也获得了重要认识。至少在晚第四纪以来的冰期-间冰期时间尺度上,从高纬度到赤道甚至南极的全球范围,风尘通量在冰期约高出间冰期2—3倍,表明冰期风尘源区更加干旱而风力更为强劲。在新生代以来,西太平洋的长期风尘输入主要反映了亚洲内陆干旱逐渐增强,是受到青藏高原隆起和全球变冷的共同影响。但是,总体上西太平洋风尘沉积的研究程度非常低,突出反映在以下几个方面:风尘从源到汇搬运和沉积过程的现代观测的缺乏、大洋风尘组分含量及通量定量化中的误区、西太平洋风尘沉积长期演变特征、机制及风尘长期输入对大洋生产力及全球碳循环的影响方面的研究亟待加强。  相似文献
5.
收集了宁夏固原2007年5月至2008年4月的12个降尘样品,陕西安塞2007年5—8月、2008年3—11月的13个降尘样品,并分别在两个降尘采样点附近采集了2个自然表土样品,对样品进行了总有机碳、粒度、磁化率分析,结果发现两地降尘的总有机质含量在1.029%~6.634%之间。粒度特征显示近源搬运占主导地位,同时,工业污染产生的PM10以下颗粒物贡献较小。降尘磁化率比自然表土明显偏高,但季节变化不明显。  相似文献
6.
An enhancement of aeolian inputs to the ocean due to a future increase in aridity in certain parts of the world is predicted from global change. We conducted an experimental simulation to assess the biological response of NW Mediterranean coastal surface waters to an episodic dust addition. On the assumption that planktonic growth was limited by phosphorus, dust effects were compared to those induced by equivalent enrichments of phosphate. The experiment analyzed the dynamics of several parameters during one week: inorganic nutrients, total and fractioned chlorophyll a, bacterial abundance, phytoplankton species composition, abundance of autotrophic and heterotrophic flagellates, particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen. The maximum addition of dust (0.5 g dust L−1) initiated an increase in bacterial abundance. After 48 h, bacterial numbers decreased due to a peak in heterotrophic flagellates and a significant growth of autotrophic organisms, mainly nanoflagellates but also diatoms, was observed. Conversely, lower inputs of dust (0.05 g dust L−1) and phosphate enrichments (0.5 μmol PO43− L−1) only produced increases in phototrophic nanoflagellates. In our experiment, dust triggered bacterial growth, changed phytoplankton dynamics and affected the ratio of autotrophic to heterotrophic biomass, adding to the variability in the sources that affect system dynamics, energy and carbon budgets and ultimately higher trophic levels of the coastal marine food web.  相似文献
7.
A sediment core covering the last 145 kyrs was collected in the western subarctic Pacific (WSAP), and analyzed for Ba, U, Al, Sc, La, Yb, Th, biogenic opal (Opal) and organic carbon (Corg) as well as its isotopic ratio (δ13C). This study examined the change of past biological production in WSAP with multiple proxies, together with understanding the relation between Loess from the Asian continent and the biological production. The Loess content was estimated from the metal components, Al, Sc, La, Yb and Th. In this high latitude core (50°N), the Loess content was generally high during the glacial periods, but it was also high even in some interglacial periods. The excess amount of Ba relative to the detrital material composition, Baex, showed the best correlation with the Vostok δD (r = 0.72, p < 0.001), indicating that the biological production was lower in the glacial periods than in the interglacials. This corroborates the pervasive correlation between Baex in the polar region, WSAP and the Antarctic Sea, and Antarctic temperature, combined with previous research. This correlation might be explained by the stratification caused by cooling. In addition, the time variations of Baex in WSAP were similar to those of Baex in the Okhotsk Sea and of other proxies (Corg and Opal) in both the Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, indicating the spatial homogeneity of Baex in WSAP including proximal marginal seas. The Opal content was more weakly correlated with the Vostok δD (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) than Baex, reflecting that Opal in WSAP including proximal marginal seas was spatially heterogeneous compared to Baex. While both the Corg content and Uex, the excess amount of U relative to the detritus composition, were not positively correlated with the Vostok δD, they behaved similarly in the sediments. The positive correlation between δ13C and the Vostok δD (r = 0.42, p < 0.001), between δ13C and Baex (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) and between δ13C and Opal (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) indicates that δ13C in WSAP may give some information on the phytoplankton growth rate. There was not a significant correlation between the spatially homogeneous Baex in WSAP and Loess (r = − 0.16, p > 0.01), suggesting that the increase of biological production with the increase of Loess supply during the glacial periods did not occur.  相似文献
8.
Dissolved Fe, Mn and Al concentrations (dFe, dMn and dAl hereafter) in surface waters and the water column of the Northeast Atlantic and the European continental shelf are reported. Following an episode of enhanced Saharan dust inputs over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean prior and during the cruise in March 1998, surface concentrations were enhanced up to 4 nmol L− 1 dFe, 3 nmol L− 1 dMn and 40 nmol L− 1 dAl and returned to 0.6 nmol L− 1 dFe, 0.5 nmol L− 1 dMn and 10 nmol L− 1 dAl towards the end of the cruise three weeks later. A simple steady state model (MADCOW, [Measures, C.I., Brown, E.T., 1996. Estimating dust input to the Atlantic Ocean using surface water aluminium concentrations. In: Guerzoni. S. and Chester. R. (Eds.), The impact of desert dust across the Mediterranean, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 301–311.]) was used which relies on surface ocean dAl as a proxy for atmospheric deposition of mineral dust. We estimated dust input at 1.8 g m− 2 yr− 1 (range 1.0–2.9 g m− 2 yr− 1) and fluxes of dFe, dMn and dAl were inferred. Mixed layer steady state residence times for dissolved metals were estimated at 1.3 yr for dFe (range 0.3–2.9 yr) and 1.9 yr for dMn (range 1.0–3.8 yr). The dFe residence time may have been overestimated and it is shown that 0.2–0.4 yr is probably more realistic. Using vertical dFe versus Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) relationships as well as a biogeochemical two end member mixing model, regenerative Fe:C ratios were estimated respectively to be 20 ± 6 and 22 ± 5 μmol Fe:mol C. Combining the atmospheric flux of dFe to the upper water column with the latter Fe:C ratio, a ‘new iron’ supported primary productivity of only 15% (range 7%–56%) was deduced. This would imply that 85% (range 44–93%) of primary productivity could be supported by regenerated dFe. The open ocean surface data suggest that the continental shelf is probably not a major source of dissolved metals to the surface of the adjacent open ocean. Continental shelf concentrations of dMn, dFe, and to a lesser extent dAl, were well correlated with salinity and express mixing of a fresher continental end member with Atlantic Ocean water flowing onto the shelf. This means probably that diffusive benthic fluxes did not play a major role at the time of the cruise.  相似文献
9.
于1983年5-7月,利用向阳红16号考察船在太平洋7—11°N,167-178°W海域进行锰结核调查,从深海沉积物中分离出大量字苗尘(或称宇宙球粒)。此后对宇宙尘进行了全面研究,取得一定进展。最近,又利用激光拉曼分子探针测定了铁质宇宙尘中的分子组成。结果表明,铁质字宙尘中除了含有Fe-Fe,Fe3+O,Fe-Ni,Al-O,Fe-Obr-Si和Si-Onb分子外,还含有较丰富的C-H-O和C-H-S-O有机分子,无定形碳C=C和C=C,CH2,CH3和挥发分子CO2,H2O,OH-,H2S,SO2等。这些成份与刍星尘埃的分子成分相一致。这一结果对于深入研究行星际尘埃微粒的起源以及探索生命物质的起源都具有重要意义。  相似文献
10.
以广东某电厂煤码头为例,探讨临海煤码头落海煤尘对海洋环境的影响。文中阐述了点源和面源起尘量的估算。根据风速、煤粒下降速度、落差高度等计算煤码头扬尘入海量。依据煤尘煤粒到达海区的量计算煤尘入海引起海水悬浮物的增量等。文中还讨论了落海煤尘煤粒对海洋环境水质、沉积物和海洋生物的影响,认为其主要是对海水水质悬浮物、海洋生物光合作用以及沉积物有机质、硫化物含量的影响等。  相似文献
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