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1.
近40 a 来三门湾海岸线时空变化遥感监测与分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
了解岸线的变化对海岸开发利用有重要意义.本文以Landsat MSS、TM、ETM+、OLI影像为主要数据源,采用人机交互的方式提取1973~2013年的4期三门湾大陆岸线,获取岸线长度以及陆域变化面积等信息,并以县级市(象山县、宁海县、三门县)为单位分段分析岸线时空变化特征.在此基础上,结合研究区新增土地利用类型的解译结果,对三门湾地区海岸开发方式进行系统分析.结果表明:1973~2013年三门湾岸线总体向海推进,总长度减少40.18 km,沿岸陆域面积增加155.89 km2,其中2000~2013年岸线向海扩张最为显著,近40 a来,在沿海三县中,宁海县岸段岸线变迁最为剧烈;海岸人为开发是岸线变化的主导因素,且开发方式时间异质性显著:早期以围垦造田、堵港蓄淡为主,20世纪80年代后期至20世纪末,偏重围垦养殖,进入21世纪,开发规模大幅增长,围垦造田和养殖依然是海岸开发的主要方式,同时城镇、工业建设等围填海规模迅增,港口码头建设也加快了步伐,海岸开发方式呈现多样化.  相似文献
2.
近20a广东省海岛海岸带土地利用变化及驱动力分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
在采用遥感和地理信息系统技术对1985年和2005年广东省海岛海岸带土地利用数据处理的基础上,对海岛海岸带土地利用变化及其驱动因子进行分析。分析表明:(1)各土地利用类型中,农用地面积变化最大,减少了2 048 km2,占研究区内1985年农用地总面积的31.4%;(2)研究区内共围填海370 km2,其中粤东、粤西和珠江口分别占12.6%,31.2%和56.2%;(3)珠海、广州、东莞、深圳、汕头和大亚湾等地城区面积扩张均在10 倍以上,形成了环珠江口城市带;(4)近20 a来,研究区内整体土地利用综合变化率达24.2%,其中粤东、粤西和珠江口分别为15.6%,22.8%和28.2%。研究揭示了20 a间研究区内土地利用类型变化模式及其驱动力,为该区域土地资源规划、近岸海洋环境保护和深入研究奠定了基础,对其他海岸带及近海资源可持续利用具有借鉴意义。  相似文献
3.
1976年以来江苏盐城滨海湿地景观变化及驱动力分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
左平  李云  赵书河  周鑫  滕厚锋  陈浩 《海洋学报》2012,34(1):101-108
基于1976年的地形测绘数据和1987,1992,1997,2002,2007年的遥感数据提取土地利用和景观的时空变化,进而分析近40 a来江苏盐城滨海湿地的景观变化和驱动力。研究表明:自1976年以来盐城滨海湿地中的自然湿地总面积呈逐渐减少的趋势;景观的主要变化特征表现为以獐茅、碱蓬群落为代表的自然湿地的大面积减少,和以鱼塘、农业用地为代表的人工湿地的大面积增加。景观指标分析表明盐城滨海湿地景观总体上有破碎化程度加剧的趋势。结果分析认为,这种变化既受到政策导向型的各类滩涂开发等人为干扰活动的影响,也受到滨海湿地自然演化和潮滩蚀淤等自然因素的影响。尽快改变盐城滨海湿地现有的开发利用模式,使各种人类活动对整个生态系统的压力减到最小,以获得经济、社会、生态效益的统一。  相似文献
4.
厦门地区主要用地生态适宜度评价   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:11  
郑爱榕  陈慈美 《台湾海峡》1997,16(4):393-401
本文以城市生态理论为指导,以厦门地区城市总体规划和环境功能区划为依据,采用模糊聚类法和生态综合评价法对厦门地区的用地进行生态工评价,基结果可为厦门地区的社会,经济和环境的协调发展提供了科学依据。  相似文献
5.
基于二维浅水方程、波作用守恒方程和对流扩散方程, 建立了波浪-潮流-泥沙耦合数值模型, 分析了最近20 年来莱州湾东部潮上带土地利用对海岸蚀退的影响。结果显示, 潮上带土地利用改变 了风暴潮时的水动力边界条件, 显著增大了岸线附近的水流流速。随着潮上带养殖设施覆盖比例的 提高, 从平面分布看, 岸线附近侵蚀显著加重, 侵蚀条带平行岸线并向下游延伸、向海侧拓展; 从剖 面分布看, 岸线两侧侵蚀深度显著增大、范围明显扩展, 水下岸坡的闭合水深加大, 闭合点外移; 从 动力条件变化看, 岸线附近水流流速最大。分析表明, 最近20 年来大规模的潮上带土地利用是莱州 湾东部海岸蚀退的重要影响因素。  相似文献
6.
分析了太湖流域不同土地利用类型土壤、河口表层沉积物及主要生物的有机碳含量和同位素分布特征,并利用端元混合法求取了陆源输入对湖泊沉积物有机质的贡献及分布。研究结果表明,流域表层土壤有机质δ13C受植物群落的δ13C值影响,不同植被类型的土壤有机质δ13C值存在差异。茶园、菜地、林地和农田δ13Corg平均值分别为-25.4‰、-25.8‰、-27.1‰和-28.1‰,其中茶园有机碳同位素值最高。河口表层沉积物有机碳同位素变化范围为-27.5‰~-25.1‰,平均值为-25.7‰。河口近岸区域表层沉积物δ13Corg偏低,且以河口为轴心向湖心逐渐增大,呈扇形条状分布,其分布主要受低δ13C值的陆源有机质输入影响。利用端元混合法求得近河口表层沉积物中陆源有机质贡献高达70%~80%,随着离岸距离的增加,陆源有机质贡献量逐渐减少。  相似文献
7.
Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5–14.6 mgC 10 g dw−1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8–50.2 μgC L−1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between –26.8 and –21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50–50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.  相似文献
8.
Land use/cover and mangrove spatial changes were assessed for ten sites and their sub-catchments in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Two time periods were involved: 1972–1990, a period of relatively high rainfall, and 1990–2004, which was significantly drier. Aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery were used to map the inter-tidal wetlands and classify the land use/cover in the sub-catchments. A Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to map three types of land cover: agriculture, built-up and plantation forest. Mangroves (mainly Avicennia marina) were the focus as they have been recorded over recent decades encroaching into salt marsh. The Mangrove-Salt marsh Interface (MSI) Index was developed to quantify the relative opportunity for mangroves to expand into salt marshes, based on the shared boundary between them. The index showed a consistent relationship with mangrove expansion and change. To address problems of high dimensionality and multi-collinearity of predictor variables, a Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) model was used. A key finding of this research was that the contribution of environmental variables to spatial changes in the mangroves was altered following a reduction in rainfall. For example, agriculture had more influence on mangrove expansion and change during the wet period than during the dry period.  相似文献
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10.
The physicochemical and biological characteristics of coastal waters form a gradient extending from land to ocean. In the Mediterranean this gradient is particularly large, due to the sea’s weak tides. Within coastal waters, those waters in contact with land are called coastal inshore waters (CIW), defined herein as between 0 and 200 m from the shoreline. Here we present the first physicochemical and biological characterization of CIW of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This case study is based on 19 years of data collected from coastal inshore (CIW; 0–200 m), nearshore (CNW; 200–1500 m), and offshore (COW; >1500 m) waters of the Catalan coast. Analyses of these data showed that the physicochemical and biological characteristics of CIW differ significantly from those of CNW and COW due to: (1) significantly higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate = 11.07 μM, nitrite = 0.52 μM, ammonium = 6.43 μM, phosphate = 0.92 μM, silicates = 5.99 μM) and chlorophyll-a (=2.42 μg/L) in CIW than in either CNW or COW (in some cases up to one order of magnitude); (2) a greater variability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll-a in CIW than in CNW and COW, and (3) the presence of a mostly urban population and the effects of river inflows as a primary source of CIW variability but with minimal impact on CNW or COW. In addition, the risk of eutrophication was found to be highest in CIW, placing human and environmental interests at greater risk than in the outermost coastal waters. The results highlight the importance of considering the distinctive physicochemical and biological properties of CIW in future coastal waters studies. This is of major importance in assessments of eutrophication and coastal water quality, not only to identify the pressure–impact relationships but also to allow the timely detection of local environmental problems and thus avoid endangering the unique communities of CIW and ensuring the sustainability of human activities. In conclusion, CIW characterization is essential to integrate coastal zone management.  相似文献
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