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1.
With the rapid development of space technology, earth observation technology and sky observatory technolo-gy, they have played a more and more important part in monitoring and predicting of earthquakes and volcanoes in the terres-trial land. In recent years, the related agencies have done the experiments and researches on monitoring and predicting ofearthquakes and volcanoes in the forewarning period by means of many approaches, such as satellite thermal infrared re-mote sensing (TIRS), Global Positioning System (GPS), differential interferometric synthesis aperture radar (D-INSAR),astronomical time-latitude residual anomaly, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), etc. A quite large number of re-search foundation has been built in the fundamental theories and application methods. The experiments and researcheshave shown that these technology is efficient methods for high frequency crust movement. If the existed separate scientificforces and results are possibly assembled together to form a more complete integration monitoring system with the combina-tion of space, sky observation, ground, deep geology and macro anomaly, it will come into a new stage of monitoring andpredicting of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.  相似文献   
2.
评述了卫星重力大地测量的最新发展及其对地球科学的重大影响。为了更好地理解地球内部物理构造与海洋动力学,以及大陆,冰川和海洋的相互作用,改善现有地球重力场模型(包括精度和空间解析度)是非常重要的。IUGG等国际组织对此已经强调了很多年。最近,由德国的GFZ(GeoForschungsZentrum),美国的NASA(National Aeronautics and Space Adminitration)以及欧洲宇航局ESA(European Space Agency)开发研制了最先进的地球监测技术-SST(Satellite-to-Sateilite Tracking)。其主要特点是利用现有的GPS连续追踪新发射低轨道卫星,并由低轨道卫星对地球重力场作精密观测。已经发射和即将发射的卫星有3颗:GHAMP(Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload for Geophysical Research an Application)已经于2000年发射;GRACE(Gravity Recovery and Climate Experimert)定于2002年发射;GOCE(Gravity Field and Steady-state Ocean Cirulation Explorer)计划2004年发射,它们可以统称为重力卫星。载有SST技术的人造卫星的主要目的是获得具有前所未有的高精度和高空间解析度的全球重力场和大地水准面模型,加强人们对地球内部构造的理解并为海洋和气象研究提供更好地参考。上述3个重力卫星工作在有明显区别的不同波谱内,它们有不同的科学应用,仅有一小部分重合。所以,就应用而言它们是完全互补的。它们在地球科学中的应用将是广泛的,特别对于固体地球物理学,海洋学以及大地测量学等领域,它们将会带来革命性的变化,其意义不亚于GPS。  相似文献   
3.
形变大地测量学的进展、问题与地震预报   总被引:12,自引:7,他引:5  
简要概括了形变大地测量学的革命性进展,研讨了它的科学特色、功能和定义以及对地球科学和防灾减灾的推动。形变大地测量学有助于从根本上击破多年来制约地震预报的“瓶颈”,但也存在不少急待解决的问题。着重研讨了在21世纪前10年,形变大地测量学如何依托多年的学科积累并充分受益于人造卫星和数字化等新技术,开展创新性研究和试验以推进地震预报。为此,对当前的研究工作提出了12条科学技术途径。最后对学科名称提出了建议。  相似文献   
4.
青岛市黄岛区拟建设海底地下油气储藏库,前期地质勘察工作要求施工倾角45°、深220m的取心钻孔4个,并在孔内分段进行压水试验.本文介绍了如何利用XY-4型金刚石小口径钻机施工基岩深斜孔及压水试验技术.  相似文献   
5.
计算机制图(CAC)和电子出版系统的普及和推广,从根本上改变了传统的地图生产工艺。本文结合制图实践,讨论了应用Coreldraw图形软件编辑出版专题地图的适应性、系统条件和工艺流程,并总结了一些制图经验和应该注意的若干问题。  相似文献   
6.
Desertification is an environmental issue in the world. The salt-alkalization desertification land area formed by both primary and secondary salt-alkalization has extended in a large scale, which has become a significant eco-environmental problem. Based on the characteristics of eco-environment and the situation of desertification in western Songnen plain, this paper reports the analyzes of its formation in background and cause. An early warning system on the salt-alkalization desertification is established and the GIS technology is used to abstract the information of desertification evaluation index. Supported by the integrated technology of the GIS and ANN, the orientation and quantitative result of desertification are gained, which is helpful to the eco-environment protection and resource development in western Songnen Plain.  相似文献   
7.
In the article the author looks back the hard development course and great progress in earth quake science and technology in China during the last near a half of century and expounds the following 3 aspects: (1) The strong desire of the whole society to mitigate seismic disasters and reduce the effect of earthquakes on social-economic live is a great driving force to push forward the development of earthquake science and technology in China; (2) To better ensure people‘ s life and property, sustainable economic development, and social stability is an essential purpose to drive the development of earthquake science and technology in China; and (3) To insist on the dialectical connection of setup of technical system for seismic monitoring with the scientific research of earthquakes and to better handle the relation between crucial task, current scientif ic level, and the feasibility are the important principles to advance the earthquake science and technology in China. Some success and many setbacks in earthquake disaster mitigation consistently enrich our knowledge regarding the complexity of the conditions for earthquake occurrence and the process of earthquake preparation, promote the reconstruction and modernization of technical system for earthquake monitoring, and deepen the scientific research of earthquakes. During the last 5 years, the improvement and modernization of technical system for earthquake monitoring have clearly provided the technical support to study and practice of earthquake prediction and pre caution, give prominence to key problems and broaden the field of scientific research of earth quakes. These have enabled us to get some new recognition of the conditions for earthquake oc currence and process of earthquake preparation, characteristics of seismic disaster, and mecha nism for earthquake generation in China‘s continent. The progress we have made not only en courages us to enhance the effectiveness of earthquake disaster mitigation, but also provides a basis for accelerating further development of earthquake science and technology in China in the new century, especially in the 10th five-year plan. Based on the history reviewed, the author sets forth a general requirement for develop ment of earthquake science and technology in China and brings out 10 aspects to be stressed and strengthened at present and in the future. These are: upgrade and setup of the network of digitized seismic observation; upgrade and setup of the network for observation of seismic pre cursors; setup of the network for observation of strong motion; setup of the laboratories for ex periment on seismic regime; establishment of technical system for seismic information, emer gency command and urgent rescue; research on short-term and imminent earthquake predic tion; research on intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction; research on attenuation of seismic ground motion, mechanism for seismic disaster, and control on seismic disaster; ba sic research fields related to seismology and geoscience. We expect that these efforts will signifi cantly elevate the level of earthquake science and technology in China to the advanced interna tional level, improve theories, techniques, and methods for earthquake precaution and predic tion, and enhance the effectiveness of earthquake disaster mitigation.  相似文献   
8.
针对航海技术的现状和发展趋势 ,提出了高等航海教育应向国际化、高素质化、现代化、技能化、规范化发展 ,以培养高素质的国际航运人才。  相似文献   
9.
 Satellite data offer a means of supplementing ground-based monitoring during volcanic eruptions, especially at times or locations where ground-based monitoring is difficult. Being directly and freely available several times a day, data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) offers great potential for near real-time monitoring of all volcanoes across large (3000×3000 km) areas. Herein we describe techniques to detect and locate activity; estimate lava area, thermal flux, effusion rates and cumulative volume; and distinguish types of activity. Application is demonstrated using data for active lavas at Krafla, Etna, Fogo, Cerro Negro and Erebus; a pyroclastic flow at Lascar; and open vent systems at Etna and Stromboli. Automated near real-time analysis of AVHRR data could be achieved at existing, or cheap to install, receiving stations, offering a supplement to conventional monitoring methods. Received: 21 January 1997 / Accepted: 3 April 1997  相似文献   
10.
数字地球、数字城市是近几年刚提出来的一个全新的概念 ,但数字城市的建设却以空前的速度向前发展着 ,国务院总理朱熔基在视察宜昌时提出要把宜昌建设成世界级的城市 ,未来的城市数字化程度将是衡量一个城市发达程度的重要指标 ,启动数字宜昌建设是跻身世界级城市 ,提高宜昌市综合竞争力的重要举措  相似文献   
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