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1.
The source and hydrochemical makeup of a stream reflects the connectivity between rainfall, groundwater, the stream, and is reflected to water quantity and quality of the catchment. However, in a semi-arid, thick, loess covered catchment, temporal variation of stream source and event associated behaviours are lesser known. Thus, the isotopic and chemical hydrographs in a widely distributed, deep loess, semi-arid catchment of the northern Chinese Loess Plateau were characterized to determine the source and hydrochemical behaviours of the stream during intra-rainfall events. Rainfall and streamflow were sampled during six hydrologic events coupled with measurements of stream baseflow and groundwater. The deuterium isotope (2H), major ions (Cl, SO42−, NO3, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+) were evaluated in water samples obtained during rainfall events. Temporal variation of 2H and Cl measured in the groundwater and stream baseflow prior to rainfall was similar; however, the isotope compositions of the streamflow fluctuated significantly and responded quickly to rainfall events, likely due to an infiltration excess, overland dominated surface runoff during torrential rainfall events. Time source separation using 2H demonstrated greater than 72% on average, the stream composition was event water during torrential rainfall events, with the proportion increasing with rainfall intensity. Solutes concentrations in the stream had loglinear relationships with stream discharge, with an outling anomaly with an example of an intra-rainfall event on Oct. 24, 2015. Stream Cl behaved nonconservative during rainfall events, temporal variation of Cl indicated a flush and washout at the onset of small rainfall events, a dilution but still high concentration pattern in high discharge and old water dominated in regression flow period. This study indicates rainfall intensity affects runoff responses in a semi-arid catchment, and the stored water in the thick, loess covered areas was less connected with stream runoff. Solute transport may threaten water quality in the area, requiring further analysis of the performance of the eco-restoration project.  相似文献   
2.
Numerous efforts have been made to understand stemflow dynamics under different types of vegetation at the inter-event scale, but few studies have explored the stemflow characteristics and corresponding influencing factors at the intra-event scale. An in-depth investigation of the inter- and intra-event dynamics of stemflow is important for understanding the ecohydrological processes in forest ecosystems. In this study, stemflow volume (FV), stemflow funnelling ratio (FR), and stemflow ratio (F%) from Quercus acutissima and Broussonetia papyrifera trees were measured at both inter- and intra-event scales in a subtropical deciduous forest, and the driving factors, including tree species and meteorological factors were further explored. Specifically, the FV, FR and F% of Q. acutissima (52.3 L, 47.2, 9.6%) were lower than those of B. papyrifera (85.1 L, 91.2, 12.4%). The effect of tree species on FV and F% was more obvious under low intensity rainfall types. At the inter-event scale, FV had a strong positive linear correlation with rainfall amount (GP) and event duration (DE) for both tree species, whereas FR and F% had a positive logarithmic correlation with GP and DE only under high-intensity, short-duration rainfall type. FR and F% were mainly affected by wind speed and the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity under low-intensity, long-duration rainfall type. At the intra-event scale, for both tree species, the mean lag time between the start of rainfall and stemflow was the shortest under high-intensity, short-duration rainfall type, while the mean duration and amount of stemflow after rain cessation were the greatest under high-amount, long-duration rainfall type. The relationship between stemflow intensity and rainfall intensity at the 5-min interval scale also depended greatly on rainfall type. These findings can help clarify stemflow dynamics and driving factors at both inter- and intra-event scales, and also provide abundant data and parameters for ecohydrological simulations in subtropical forests.  相似文献   
3.
超大陆演化是地质研究的重要内容,华北克拉通与不同地质历史时期超大陆汇聚与裂解的联系对反演华北克拉通构造演化历史具有重要意义。本文在辽吉古元古代造山带中段的原划分为辽河群地层中首次识别出一套早古生代沉积建造。这套沉积建造与华北克拉通以浅海相的碳酸盐岩为主的早古生代沉积并不一致,以发育大量的陆源碎屑沉积为特征。我们对2件细砂岩分别进行了锆石LA-ICP-MS和SHRIMP U-Pb定年。定年结果显示,2件样品的最小年龄分别为~482Ma和~498Ma,反映了它们的最大沉积时代。2件样品的碎屑锆石年龄主要介于1600~500Ma,缺乏亲华北的物源信息,表明它们的物源主要来自于华北之外。2件样品年龄谱中最重要的峰值出现在格林威尔期和泛非期,表明华北克拉通曾与罗迪尼亚超大陆和冈瓦纳大陆存在联系。格林威尔期碎屑锆石可能来自于罗迪尼亚超大陆时期波罗地古陆物质在华北克拉通东缘的再循环;泛非期碎屑锆石可能来自于东冈瓦纳大陆的北缘造山带。  相似文献   
4.
利用最新发布的CALIPSO产品,构建了2007-2017年中国沙尘气溶胶的三维分布,并结合HYSPLIT-4模式和再分析数据,探讨了沙尘的三维输送过程。结果表明:中国的沙尘排放源区主要是塔克拉玛干沙漠和巴丹吉林沙漠,沙尘气溶胶出现频率分别为60%和35%。塔克拉玛干沙漠排放的沙尘主要(50%~70%)停留在源地0~6 000 m高度,少部分向东输送至甘肃和内蒙古;巴丹吉林沙漠排放的沙尘则主要向东输送。中国沙尘排放量在春季最大,向东输送最强;夏季,东亚夏季风限制了沙尘向东输送;秋季,沙尘排放减弱,输送强度和夏季相当;沙尘排放量在冬季最小,输送最弱。夏季,沙尘在输送过程中可被抬升至高度5 000 m以上,春季次之,秋、冬季的沙尘主要在低层大气输送。沙尘在向东输送的过程中被抬升并和当地人为污染物混合变为污染性沙尘,华北地区污染性沙尘出现频率高达30%;输送到海洋的沙尘也会与洋面上(0~3 000 m高度)的海盐气溶胶混合,出现频率约为10%。  相似文献   
5.
吴迪  刘永江  李伟民  常瑞虹 《岩石学报》2020,36(8):2571-2588
连山关地区位于华北克拉通北缘铀成矿省辽东铀成矿带,已知铀矿床(点)均发育在韧性剪切带附近。为了解韧性剪切带运动学、几何学构造变形机制及与铀矿的关系,本文以连山关岩体周缘韧性剪切带为研究对象,通过野外宏观调查和室内微观研究相结合的研究方法,探讨构造变形期次、韧性剪切带形成机理及其对铀成矿的控制作用。研究表明:连山关岩体周缘发育的韧性剪切带与近南北向挤压构造变形有关,其右行韧性剪切带应变类型为压扁应变,属于一般压缩-平面应变范围,Flinn指数K值在0.19~0.69之间,岩石类型属于S/SL型构造岩。研究区内铀矿体均为隐伏盲矿体,主要赋存于沿着连山关岩体和辽河群接触带右行剪切作用形成的背斜褶皱核部,和北东东向断裂关系密切。综合分析认为,连山关岩体南缘北西向韧性剪切带为一级控矿构造,是区内铀矿热液运移的通道,而剪切带边部的晚期北东东向断裂则是铀矿储存空间;铀源可能来自于太古宙古风化壳,并在大型韧性剪切活动(提供热液运移通道)和基性脉岩侵入(提供热源和还原剂)等综合因素作用下运移、富集成矿。  相似文献   
6.
《China Geology》2020,3(3):462-472
The scientific field test site of rainfall-soil moisture-groundwater conversion in Dabie Mountain Area–Jianghan Plain is located in the northern region of the Jianghan Plain, the transition zone between the Dabie Mountain Area and Jianghan Plain. It’s a great field test site to study the material and energy exchange among rainfall, soil moisture, and groundwater of the Earth ’s critical zone in subtropical monsoon climate plain areas. This paper analyzed the connection between rainfall and volume water content (VWC) of soil at different depths of several soil profiles, and the dynamic feature of groundwater was discussed, which reveals the rainfall infiltration recharge of Quaternary Upper Pleistocene strata. The results show that the Quaternary Upper Pleistocene aquifer groundwater accepts a little direct rainfall recharge, while the lateral recharge is the main supplement source. There were 75 effective rainfall events among 120 rainfall events during the monitoring period, with an accumulated amount of 672.9 mm, and the percentages of effective rainfall amount and duration time were 62.50% and 91.56%, respectively. The max evaporation depth at the upper part in Quaternary cohesive soil was no less than 1.4 m. The soil profile was divided into four zones: (1) The sensitive zone of rainfall infiltration within 1.4 m, where the material and energy exchange frequently near the interface between atmosphere and soil; (2) the buffer zone of rainfall infiltration between 1.4 m and 3.5 m; (3) the migration zone of rainfall infiltration between 3.5 m and 5.0 m; and (4) the rainfall infiltration and groundwater level co-influenced zone below 5.0 m. The results revealed the reaction of soil moisture and groundwater to rainfall in the area covered by cohesive soil under humid climate in Earth ’s critical zone, which is of great theoretical and practical significance for groundwater resources evaluation and development, groundwater environmental protection, ecological environmental improvement, drought disaster prevention, and flood disaster prevention in subtropical monsoon climate plain areas.  相似文献   
7.
本文主要利用地震海洋学方法研究地中海直布罗陀海峡附近内孤立波的结构特征,此处内孤立波为第一模态下沉型,为中幅度和大幅度内孤立波,垂向振幅最大可达74.5 m,振幅随深度增加呈增大趋势,传播速度随振幅增大而增大,可以确定"真"最大振幅位置位于密跃层附近.由于类多普勒效应和孤立波与测量船之间存在夹角的原因,从地震剖面上得到的为视半高宽参数,需要进行校正后才能得到比较真实的半高宽参数,校正后半高宽最高可达到1721.8 m,但是校正后的半高宽与理论结果有些差距,这可能与内孤立波的发育稳定程度有关.随着内孤立波包不断向东运动,整体波宽变大,垂向速度变小.本文将地震海洋学方法拓展应用于地中海区域内孤立波分析,进一步证明了利用地震海洋学方法研究海水运动的可行性.  相似文献   
8.
全球观鸟活动的规模达到了每年几千万人次,观鸟旅游已经成为世界野生动物观赏业的重要组成部分。气候变化改变了鸟类物候期及其空间格局,这不仅会影响观鸟者的旅游活动,还会进一步对观鸟旅游利益相关者的生计产生影响。监测并尽早地识别出这些影响,提醒利益相关者采取有效的适应策略意义重大。本文引入物候期这一气候变化的“指示器”来反映开展观鸟旅游的重要资源基础——鸟类活动时间以及栖息地格局的变化。通过对1980-2010年中国26个地区的98个物候序列的鸟类研究进行荟萃分析发现:中国鸟类离开、抵达、停留时间以及鸟类栖息地的格局都已经发生了改变。春季、夏季鸟类会提前离开或抵达,但在秋季它们的活动会延迟。鸟类停留的时间主要呈现延长的趋势。温度升高会使鸟类停留时间变长,对观鸟旅游的开展有利。中国低纬度地区和西部地区鸟类停留时间更长。鸟类栖息地的格局呈现出向北和向西迁移的特征。游客和景区工作人员均已感知到鸟类活动时间以及栖息地格局的变化对观鸟旅游产生的影响。  相似文献   
9.
东海盆地中、新生代盆架结构与构造演化   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
基于地貌、钻井、岩石测年和地震等资料,分析盆地地层分布、盆架结构、构造单元划分和裂陷迁移规律,结果表明东海盆地由台北坳陷、舟山隆起、浙东坳陷、钓鱼岛隆褶带和冲绳坳陷构成,是以新生代沉积为主、中生代沉积为辅的大型中、新生代叠合含油气盆地;古元古代变质岩系构成了盆地的基底。该盆地不仅是印度-太平洋前后相继的动力体系作用下形成的西太平洋沟-弧-盆构造体系域一部分,而且也是古亚洲洋动力体系作用下形成的古亚洲洋构造域和特提斯洋动力体系作用下形成的特提斯洋构造域一部分,晚侏罗世至早白垩世经历了构造体制转换,盆地格局发生重大变革,早白垩世以前主要受古亚洲-特提斯洋构造体制影响的强烈挤压造山和地壳增厚作用演变为早白垩世以来主要受太平洋构造体制控制的陆缘伸展裂陷和岩石圈减薄作用,经历侏罗纪古亚洲-特提斯构造体制大陆边缘拗陷和白垩纪以来太平洋构造体制弧后裂陷两大演化阶段。白垩纪以来太平洋构造体制的弧后裂陷演化阶段可细分为早白垩世至始新世裂陷期、渐新世至晚中新世拗陷期和中新世末至全新世裂陷期。  相似文献   
10.
《China Geology》2020,3(1):124-136
Utilization of urban underground space has become a vital approach to alleviate the strain on urban land resources, and to optimize the structure and pattem of the city. It is also very important to improve the city environment, build livable city and increase the capacity of the city. Based on the analysis of existing evaluation methods and their problems, a method for evaluating underground space resources based on a negative list of adverse factors affecting underground space development is proposed, to be primarily used in urban planning stages. A list of the adverse factors is established, including limiting factors, constraining factors and influencing factors. Taking Xi’an as an example, using a geographical information system platform, a negative list of adverse factors for the underground space resources in Xi’ an City are evaluated, and preventive measures are proposed. Natural resources, exploitable resources, and the potential growth of exploitable underground space resources are evaluated. Underground space assessment in the different development stages of the city, collaborative utilization and safety evaluation for multiple subsurface resources, environmental impact and assessment, as well as evaluation methods based on big data and intelligent optimization algorithms are all discussed with the aim of serving city planning and construction.  相似文献   
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