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热带西太平洋浮游纤毛虫的垂直分布   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
于2014年12月至2015年1月在热带西太平洋沿台湾南部到雅浦海山一个断面和雅浦海山海区研究了浮游纤毛虫丰度和生物量的垂直分布。浮游纤毛虫丰度变化范围为0-635ind./L, 生物量范围为0-1.53μgC/L, 丰度和生物量高值分布于200m以浅, 其中, 砂壳纤毛虫丰度为0-45ind./L, 占总纤毛虫丰度的比例在0-14.62%之间。浮游纤毛虫丰度垂直分布均呈现"双峰型"模式: 在表层和叶绿素极大值层(DCM)出现高值。共鉴定出砂壳纤毛虫33属76种。雅浦海山海区优势种为纤弱细瓮虫、卢氏真铃虫、管状真铃虫、膨大波膜虫, 西太平洋海区优势种为纤弱细瓮虫、海勒斯真铃虫、酒杯类管虫、尖锐号角虫。有些种类分布在100m以浅, 有的种类分布在100m以深, 说明砂壳纤毛虫在100m水深左右种类发生变化。  相似文献
3.
海山区铁锰结壳基座的起源及其成因分类方案   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:2  
本文论述了海山区铁锰结壳基座的起源及其成因分类,在剖析了铁锰结壳基座的研究历史与现状,时空分布及其属性之后,还揭示了铁锰结壳基座的起源,演化,现今性状与内在的规律性联系;同时提出了铁锰结壳基座的成因分类方案;并且指出了这个分类方案在铁锰结壳矿床学研究领域的理论和实际价值。  相似文献
4.
中太平洋海山区富钴结壳地质特征   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:12  
应用 X射线衍射分析、穆斯堡尔谱分析、X荧光光谱分析以及超微生物化石定年等方法对 1 998年和 1 999年“大洋一号”调查船 DY95 - 8和 DY95 - 1 0航次采集的富钴结壳样品进行了地质特征综合研究与分析 ,结果表明 :( 1 )该区富钴结壳可划分为板状结壳、砾状结壳和钴结核三类 ,均具有微晶质结构。 ( 2 )该区富钴结壳宏观构造主要呈板层状和圈层状构造 ;显微构造在形态上可大体分为柱状构造、平行纹理状构造和致密块状构造三种基本类型。 ( 3)该区富钴结壳主要由三类矿物组成 :锰矿物、铁矿物和杂质矿物。其中锰矿物为水羟锰矿和少量的钡镁锰矿 ,铁矿物主要为 β-羟铁矿 ,偶见赤铁矿和磁铁矿等 ,杂质矿物有石英、斜长石等。( 4 )该区富钴结壳主要成矿元素含量 :Fe为 1 6.86% ,Mn为 2 1 .2 6% ,Cu为 1 1 0 2 .0 9× 1 0 - 6 ,Co为 62 5 2 .72× 1 0 - 6 ,Ni为 40 64.62× 1 0 - 6 。 ( 5 )该区东部海山 ( N1~ N4海山 )比西部海山( N5、 N6海山 ) Fe元素含量高 ,Mn、 Cu、 Co、 Ni元素含量则低 ,这一差异源于海水中 Fe、 Mn等成矿元素的分离作用 ,其分离程度与海底火山作用时代以及相应的玄武岩海解风化时间长短有密切关系。 ( 6)结壳形成于第三纪古新世至第四纪更新世 :第一阶段从第三纪古新世到中新世 ,  相似文献
5.
海山区浮游生态学研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
本文综述了海山浮游生态学研究的现状。海山是大洋中常见的地形单元,在有的海山附近鱼类和底栖生物的生物量比周围大洋中要多,针对这些鱼类和底栖生物的饵料来源提出了三种假说,第一种假说认为海山区特殊的物理环境导致初级生产力较高(经典假说),第二种假说认为海山区的饵料不是本地生产的,地形和流场使得外来的浮游生物在海山区富集或通量加大(外来营养补充假说),第三种假说认为海山上部的颗粒有机物营养较高,是鱼类和底栖生物的营养来源之一(颗粒有机物补充假说)。对海山浮游生态学的研究基本围绕这几个假说进行。目前只在9座海山进行了浮游生态学研究,这些研究表明单个假说并不能解释海山附近鱼类生物量较大的现象,海山鱼类和底栖生物的营养来源可能有很多,这些假说阐述的机制并不互相矛盾,海山生物之间的营养关系也比原来想象的复杂得多。已有研究都是针对其中某个假说进行验证研究,建议我国即将进行的海山浮游生态学研究针对三种假说进行海上调查,以提供完备的数据支持。  相似文献
6.
Horizontal and meridional volume transports on timescales from intra-seasonal to interannual in the North Pacific subarctic region were investigated using a reanalysis dataset for 1993–2001 that was constructed from an assimilation of the TOPEX altimeter and in situ data into an eddy-permitting North Pacific ocean general circulation model. The barotropic flow is excited along east of the Emperor Seamounts by the western intensification dynamics. The volume transport of this flow compensates for that across the interior region east of the Seamounts below the summit depth of the Seamounts. The Oyashio, which is also considered as a compensation flow for the transport in the whole interior region, includes baroclinic as well as barotropic components. Baroclinic transports in the whole interior region exceed those in the western boundary region in the upper (200–1000 m) and lower (2000–5000 m) layers, and the total transport is northward (southward) in the upper (lower) layer. These excesses of the baroclinic transport are balanced by a vertical transport of the meridional overturn. The meridional overturn has a complementary relation to the basin-scale baroclinic circulation in the North Pacific subactic region. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
7.
In 2001, the International Seabed Authority (ISBA) initiated the consideration relating to the Reg-ulations for Prospecting and Exploration for Hydrothermal Polymetallic Sulphides and Cobalt-rich Ferromanganese Crusts in the Area at its 7th session. Since then, the consideration of the Regula-tions has been mainly focused on the size of areas to be allocated for exploration and exploitation of the crusts. This paper, based on the investigation data and the analysis of the distribution characteristics of the crusts, suggests a model for determining the size of areas for exploration and exploitation of the crusts, taking into account various factors such as production scale, crust thickness and grade, mineable area proportion, recovery efficiency, exploration venture, and so on. Through the modeling, the paper suggests that the exploration area (the area covered by each ap-plication for approval of a plan of work for exploration of cobalt-rich crusts) shall be 4 856 km2 and the exploitation area (the mine site area) shall be 1 214 km2, for 20 years of 1 million wet tonnes annual production.  相似文献
8.
2014年冬季对西太平洋雅浦区Y3海山及其邻近大洋海域不同粒径浮游植物叶绿素a浓度进行了现场观测,同时结合温度、盐度、营养盐数据,分析了Y3海山区总叶绿素a浓度分布情况,不同粒级浮游植物对总叶绿素a浓度的贡献率及其与环境因子的关系,并与热带西太平洋大洋区(DY断面)进行了比较。结果表明:Y3海山A、B断面与DY断面水体平均叶绿素a浓度相差不大,分别为0.057、0.054和0.051mg/m3,A、B和DY三个断面各水层(0、30、75、100、150和200m)叶绿素a浓度变化范围分别为0.009—0.205、0.005—0.236和0.007—0.229mg/m3。不同粒级浮游植物的叶绿素a占总叶绿素a的比例从大到小依次为微微型浮游植物、微型浮游植物和小型浮游植物,三者在各断面的比例分别为A断面:59.97%,25.39%,14.64%;B断面:50.87%,30.70%,18.43%;DY断面:55.87%,29.87%,14.26%。微微型浮游植物在整个调查区域为优势类群,在A、B和DY三个断面的平均浓度分别为0.025、0.026和0.029mg/m3。各站位均有次表层叶绿素a浓度最高值现象,其中Y3海山区西南部和东南部为叶绿素a浓度高值区。洋流、温度和营养盐均对叶绿素a浓度分布有一定的影响。本研究发现海山经典假说不适用于2014年冬季的Y3海山区。  相似文献
9.
Many modern seafloor tectonic environments are host to hydrothermal systems and associated polymetallic sulfide deposits. Metal transport and precipitation are controlled by magmatic processes such as pre-eruptive degassing and the hydrothermal cycle. The original availability of Pb and other ore metals in a given setting is dependent on concentrations in the original magmatic source or additional enrichment processes. We have examined the Pb budget of melt inclusions from nine modern seafloor settings representing back-arcs, mid-ocean ridges and seamounts. Melt inclusions provide information on the characteristics of parental magmas, including insights into metal budgets. Trace element data in melt inclusions hosted in plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene were obtained by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry.Results from back-arcs emphasize the impact of slab-subduction and dehydration processes on the chemical characteristics of generated magmas. Volatile- and fluid-mobile element-rich melt inclusions at Manus basin and Okinawa trough reflect a robust contribution of elements from the subducting slab as evidenced by relatively low Ce/Pb ratios. At Bransfield strait, on the other hand, melt inclusions are volatile poor, and fluid-mobile element ratios are similar to mid-ocean ridge values indicating little or no contribution from the slab. High Cu concentrations at Manus basin and Okinawa trough can be explained by fluxing of ferric iron from the subducting slab benefiting the production of sulfate over sulfide.Metal budgets for seamounts located on and nearby the axis of mid-ocean ridge segments appear to be independent of any input of mantle plume material. Results from the southern Explorer ridge (strong lower mantle influence, transitional- and enriched-MORBs), Pito and Axial seamounts (moderate lower mantle influence, transitional-MORBs) and a Foundation near-ridge seamount (little to no mantle influence, normal-MORB) show that, despite similar tectonic environments and varying contributions of mantle plume material, Cu, Zn and Pb values do not vary significantly between the enriched and non-enriched magma components of a given setting.  相似文献
10.
Sampling of volcanic seamounts with dredges and the remotely operated vehicle Tiburon recovered erratic rocks in surprising abundance as far as 500km offshore of the US West coast. The erratics usually have continental lithologies and appear to have been weathered in nearshore environments. They are probably transported by kelp holdfasts, drift logs, and pinnipeds to the seamounts, where they accumulate over time. The erratics are concentrated as lag deposits and kept from becoming buried in sediment by currents that sweep the seamounts. The erratics often have thinner manganese-oxide crusts than rocks of the seamounts because they were delivered to the seafloor more recently and manganese-oxide crusts precipitate over time. The thinner crusts make erratics easier to collect. While most of the erratics clearly did not originate by the volcanic processes that formed the seamounts, careful evaluation of some is necessary to distinguish them as erratics. Failure to recognize the presence of erratics may result in unrealistically complex interpretations of regional geology.  相似文献
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