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1.
The 20 km2 Galabre catchment belongs to the French network of critical zone observatories (OZCAR; Gaillardet et al., Vadose Zone Journal, 2018, 17(1), 1–24). It is representative of the sedimentary lithology and meteorological forcing found in Mediterranean and mountainous areas. Due to the presence of highly erodible and sloping badlands on various lithologies, the site was instrumented in 2007 to understand the dynamics of suspended sediments (SS) in such areas. Two meteorological stations including measurements of air temperature, wind speed and direction, air moisture, rainfall intensity, raindrop size and velocity distribution were installed both in the upper and lower part of the catchment. At the catchment outlet, a gauging station records the water level, temperature and turbidity (10 min time-step). Stream water samples are collected automatically to estimate SS concentration-turbidity relationships, allowing quantification of SS fluxes with known uncertainty. The sediment samples are further characterized by measuring their particle size distributions and by applying a low-cost sediment fingerprinting approach using spectrocolorimetric tracers. Thus, the contributions of badlands located on different lithologies to total SS flux are quantified at a high temporal resolution, providing the opportunity to better analyse the links between meteorological forcing variability and watershed hydrosedimentary response. The set of measurements was extended to the dissolved phase in 2017. Both stream water electrical conductivity and major ion concentrations are measured each week and every 3 h during storm events. This extension of measurements to the dissolved phase will allow progress in understanding both the origin of the water during the events and the partitioning between particulate and dissolved fluxes of solutes in the critical zone. All data sets are available at https://doi.osug.fr/public/DRAIXBLEONE_GAL/index.html .  相似文献   
2.
三峡工程运用后坝下游河道泥沙输移变化规律   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
郭小虎  渠庚  刘亚  刘心愿 《湖泊科学》2020,32(2):564-572
三峡工程蓄水后"清水"下泄,坝下游河段将会长期处于严重不饱和状态,水流含沙量沿程恢复将会引起坝下游长距离冲刷,本文根据三峡工程蓄水前、后的实测资料分析了坝下游河道泥沙输移变化规律,探索不同粒径组沙量沿程恢复对河床冲刷的影响,得到以下结论:在蓄水初期d≤0.031 mm沙量恢复主要受河床补给与江湖入汇共同的影响,随着水库下泄该粒径组沙量递减,使得各站该粒径组年均输沙量均远小于蓄水前的水平,沙量恢复仍主要受河床补给与江湖入汇的影响,这是造成坝下游河道发生长距离冲刷的主要原因之一;在蓄水初期0.031 mmd≤0.125 mm沙量恢复主要受河床补给的影响,但江湖入汇的影响较大,随着河床补给量逐渐减少,各站该粒径组年均输沙量均小于蓄水前的水平,沙量恢复仍主要受河床补给的影响,江湖入汇的影响逐渐减小,这也是坝下游河道发生长距离冲刷的主要原因之一; d0.125 mm沙量恢复主要受河床补给的影响,蓄水初期该粒径组沙量在宜昌监利河段沿程恢复速率较快,且在监利站达到蓄水前的水平,随着时间推移,在宜昌监利河段沿程恢复且速率仍较快,在监利站达到最大值,其数值逐渐小于蓄水前的水平,这是造成坝下游河道冲刷重点集中在宜昌监利河段的主要原因.  相似文献   
3.
Lower Palaeogene extrusive igneous rocks of the Faroe Islands Basalt Group (FIBG) dominate the Faroese continental margin, with flood basalts created at the time of breakup and separation from East Greenland extending eastwards into the Faroe‐Shetland Basin. This volcanic succession was emplaced in connection with the opening of the NE Atlantic; however, consensus on the age and duration of volcanism remains lacking. On the Faroe Islands, the FIBG comprises four main basaltic formations (the pre‐breakup Lopra and Beinisvørð formations, and the syn‐breakup Malinstindur and Enni formations) locally separated by thin intrabasaltic sedimentary and/or volcaniclastic units. Offshore, the distribution of these formations remains ambiguous. We examine the stratigraphic framework of these rocks on the Faroese continental margin combining onshore (published) outcrop information with offshore seismic‐reflection and well data. Our results indicate that on seismic‐reflection profiles, the FIBG can be informally divided into lower and upper seismic‐stratigraphic packages separated by the strongly reflective A‐horizon. The Lower FIBG comprises the Lopra and Beinisvørð formations; the upper FIBG includes the Malinstindur and Enni formations. The strongly reflecting A‐horizon is a consequence of the contrast in properties of the overlying Malinstindur and underlying Beinisvørð formations. Onshore, the A‐horizon is an erosional surface, locally cutting down into the Beinisvørð Formation; offshore, we have correlated the A‐horizon with the Flett unconformity, a highly incised, subaerial unconformity, within the juxtaposed and interbedded sedimentary fill of the Faroe‐Shetland Basin. We refer to this key regional boundary as the A‐horizon/Flett unconformity. The formation of this unconformity represents the transition from the pre‐breakup to the syn‐breakup phase of ocean margin development in the Faroe–Shetland region. We examine the wider implications of this correlation considering existing stratigraphic models for the FIBG, discussing potential sources of uncertainty in the correlation of the lower Palaeogene succession across the Faroe–Shetland region, and implications for the age and duration of the volcanism.  相似文献   
4.
Reef-associated landforms are coupled to the health of the reef ecosystem which produces the sediment that forms and maintains these landforms. However, this connection can make reef-fronted coastlines sensitive to the impacts of climate change, given that any decline in ecosystem health (e.g. decreasing sediment supply) or changes to physical processes (e.g. sea level rise, increasing wave energy) could drive the sediment budgets of these systems into a net erosive state. Therefore, knowledge of both the sediment sources and transport mechanisms is required to predict the sensitivity of reef-associated landforms to future climate change. Here, we examine the benthic habitat composition, sediment characteristics (composition, texture, and age), and transport mechanisms and pathways to understand the interconnections between coastal morphology and the reef system at Tantabiddi, Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Benthic surveys and sediment composition analysis revealed that although live coral accounts for less than 5% of the benthic cover, coral is the dominant sediment constituent (34% on average). Sediment ages (238U/230Th) were mostly found to be thousands of years old, suggesting that the primary sediment source is relic reef material (e.g. Holocene reef framework). Sediment transport across the lagoon was quantified through measurements of ripple migration rates, which were found to be shoreward migrating and responsible for feeding the large shoreline salient in the lee of the reef. The derived sediment fluxes were comparable with previously measured rates of sediment production by bioerosion. These results suggest that sediment budgets of systems dependent on old (>103 years) source materials may be more resilient to climate change as present-day reef health and community composition (i.e. sources of ‘new’ carbonate production) have limited influence on sediment supply. Therefore, the vulnerability of reef-associated landforms in these systems will be dictated by future changes to mechanisms of sediment generation (e.g. bioerosion) and/or physical processes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
The hydrostatic energy of high-pressure seawater is a renewable and green energy source for ocean exploration and have been used to replace underwater electrical energy transmission through the cable and underwater battery pack to power seafloor equipment. The advantage of the energy supply method is the cost-effective and the robustness. In the paper, the energy performance of the existing hydrostatic seafloor sediment samplers powered by seawater hydrostatic energy are modelled and analyzed and compared. In view of the common shortcoming of existing technology, a novel hydrostatic seafloor sediment sampler is proposed. The model of energy conversion of the new sampler is built, and its energy performance is obtained. The analysis results indicate that the energy conversion efficiency of the novel sediment sampler is much higher than the existing ones, which means that the new sampler can collect much longer sample with the limited amount of hydrostatic energy. The seawater hydrostatic energy conversion system of the new sampler can also be used to power other seafloor equipment.  相似文献   
6.
为探究重金属在红树林沉积物及红树植物中的分布累积及迁移规律,选取了徐闻南山镇红树林为研究对象,通过测定红树林沉积物及红树植物不同部位(根、茎、叶)的重金属质量分数,运用富集因子、生物富集系数、转移系数及相关性分析等方法进行分析。结果表明:1)红树林沉积物重金属质量分数表现为铬(Cr)>锌(Zn)>镍(Ni)>铜(Cu)>铅(Pb)>砷(As)>汞(Hg)>镉(Cd),为中等变异程度;除了镍(Ni)元素外,其余7种重金属未超过国家一级标准,除了铅(Pb)元素外,其余7种重金属均超过广东省土壤环境背景值,说明研究区沉积物中重金属具有一定的积累效应。2)沉积物中砷(As)、铜(Cu)、锌(Zn)、汞(Hg)、镍(Ni)、铬(Cr)富集因子值均>1.5,说明受到轻微人为活动影响;各站位镍(Ni)富集因子值均>5,结合研究区背景,反映了镍(Ni)受到自然和人为输入的共同影响。3)白骨壤体内重金属主要集中在根部,而红海榄体内重金属在根茎叶中分布相对均匀。白骨壤根茎叶部位的大多数重金属质量分数远高于红海榄,说明白骨壤对重金属的吸附能力比红海榄强。汞(Hg)集中分布在植物的叶片部位,且与其他重金属之间相关性不明显;推测汞(Hg)主要通过叶片吸收进入植物体内,与交通运输污染有关。4)不同红树植物对不同重金属富集能力各异,白骨壤对重金属的富集能力表现为:镉(Cd)>砷(As)>铜(Cu)>锌(Zn)>汞(Hg)>铅(Pb)>镍(Ni)>铬(Cr),红海榄表现为:镉(Cd)>铜(Cu)>汞(Hg)>锌(Zn)>铅(Pb)>砷(As)>镍(Ni)>铬(Cr)。白骨壤和红海榄对汞(Hg)的运移能力都较强;红海榄对镉(Cd)的富集能力和转运能力都较强,而白骨壤对镉(Cd)富集能力较强,转运能力却较弱,这说明红树植物对重金属元素的富集能力与转运能力不存在正比关系。  相似文献   
7.
Most of the Southeast Atlantic Ocean is abyssal, and global bathymetries suggest that only ~3.2% of the areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ; also known as the high seas, as defined in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea [UNCLOS]) are shallower than 2 500 m. This study mapped bathymetry and characterised substrates in selected seamount summit areas, including several that have been or may become fishing areas. The southernmost location, the Schmitt-Ott Seamount, has exposed volcanic bedrock with surrounding flats covered by thin biogenic sediments and/or coral rubble that appears ancient. At Wüst, Vema, Valdivia and Ewing seamounts the basaltic base appears to be overlain by coral caps and other coral substrates (sheets, rubble). Adjacent summit plains have biogenic sediments of varying thickness. Vema has a flat, roughly circular summit, <100 m deep, with the shallowest point being a 22-m-deep summit knoll; the upper slopes have ancient coral framework, but the summit has a mixture of coralline and volcanic rock and coarse sediments, including extensive areas with coralline algae and kelp forests. Valdivia Bank is a 230-m-deep, flat, rocky area (~11 × 5 km), protruding steeply from the extensive multi-summit Valdivia subarea of the Walvis Ridge. The distribution of past fisheries in the Convention Area of the South East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (SEAFO) was considered in relation to the new information on bathymetry and substrate.  相似文献   
8.
Subsurface deformation is a driver for river path selection when deformation rates become comparable to the autogenic mobility rate of rivers. Here we combine geomorphology, soil and sediment facies analyses, and geophysical data of the Late Quaternary sediments of the central Garo-Rajmahal Gap in Northwest Bengal to link subsurface deformation with surface processes. We show variable sedimentation characteristics, from slow rates (<0.8 mm/year) in the Tista megafan at the foot of the Himalaya to nondeposition at the exposed surface of the Barind Tract to the south, enabling the development of mature soils. Combined subsidence in the Tista fan and uplift of the Barind Tract are consistent with a N-S flexural response of the Indian plate to loading of the Himalaya Mountains given a low value of elastic thickness (15–25 km). Provenance analysis based on bulk strontium concentration suggests a dispersal of sediment consistent with this flexural deformation—in particular the abandonment of the Barind Tract by a Pleistocene Brahmaputra River and the current extents of the Tista megafan lobes. Overall, these results highlight the control by deeply rooted deformation patterns on the routing of sediment by large rivers in foreland settings.  相似文献   
9.
Catchments have highly variable yields of runoff and soil erosion. The size, land use and the surface cover play a significant role and influence the catchment response and parameter values of simulation models. Two experimental basins—the Cariri basins—were equipped in a semi-arid region of Brazil, for obtaining runoff and sediment yield at different catchment scales, as well as, to evaluate the influence of the land use and surface cover. In the first basin, located in the municipality of Sumé, the field studies were carried out at two different scales: four micro-catchments with an area of around 0.5 ha and nine standard Wischmeier-type erosion plots of 100 m2. The experimental units had varied vegetation and management. They were subjected only to natural rainfall events, and were monitored from 1982 to 1991. The total runoff and total sediment yield were determined for each of the events. The installations in the second basin, in the municipality of São João do Cariri, from 1999, include two erosion plots, three micro-catchments, and two sub-catchments of a small basin. These basins are still being monitored for runoff and sediment production. Among the micro-catchments two are nested to detect any scale effect at the micro-catchment level. Nearly 600 events of precipitation, that produced runoff in at least one of the experimental units, have been registered. These data have been used to evaluate the influence of various factors, including cultivation practices and to calibrate hydrological models for plots and micro-catchments. Parameters have been tested by means of cross validations among micro-catchments and sub-catchments. The data sets are made available to all the catchment hydrology researchers and others at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4690886 .  相似文献   
10.
We analyzed variation of channel–floodplain suspended sediment exchange along a 140 km reach of the lower Amazon River for two decades (1995–2014). Daily sediment fluxes were determined by combining measured and estimated surface sediment concentrations with river–floodplain water exchanges computed with a two‐dimensional hydraulic model. The average annual inflow to the floodplain was 4088 ± 2017 Gg yr?1 and the outflow was 2251 ± 471 Gg yr?1, respectively. Prediction of average sediment accretion rate was twice the estimate from a previous study of this same reach and more than an order of magnitude lower than an estimate from an earlier regional scale study. The amount of water routed through the floodplain, which is sensitive to levee topography and increases exponentially with river discharge, was the main factor controlling the variation in total annual sediment inflow. Besides floodplain routing, the total annual sediment export depended on the increase in sediment concentration in lakes during floodplain drainage. The recent increasing amplitude of the Amazon River annual flood over two decades has caused a substantial shift in water and sediment river–floodplain exchanges. In the second decade (2005–2014), as the frequency of extreme floods increased, annual sediment inflow increased by 81% and net storage increased by 317% in relation to the previous decade (1995–2004). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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