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1.
通过测定长江口潮滩悬浮颗粒有机质和表层沉积有机质在枯水季节 (2006年2月 )和洪水季节 (2006年8月 )的稳定碳同位素值,对有机质潜在来源及局部岸段改造作用进行了分析。结果显示,悬浮颗粒有机质稳定碳同位素值在2月明显低于8月,变化范围分别在-25.8‰~-23.4‰和-25.1‰~-22.9‰,主要是受径流量枯洪季变化和浮游生物生长季节变化两种因素的叠加作用。表层沉积有机质2月和8月的稳定碳同位素分别为-25.0‰~-20.4‰和-24.7‰~-19.5‰,季节变化不明显,主要来自悬浮颗粒物的沉降。除受大背景环境因素影响,局部环境对潮滩有机质也有一定的改造作用,污水、支流河水的输入对悬浮颗粒有机质碳同位素有一定的影响,埋藏的潮滩植物和底栖微藻则对沉积有机质有部分贡献。  相似文献   
2.
陕北典型地区乡村聚落水蚀泥沙规律的初步研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
通过定位观测资料的分析,发现陕北多沙粗沙区乡村聚落的平均年侵蚀强度达5434.3t/km2,户间道路、户间空地、庭院的平均侵蚀强度分别达7348t/km2.6873.2 t/km2,2081.7t/km2.除庭院属轻度级侵蚀外,其它已达强度级侵蚀.同时延安的户间道路(14190.8t/km2),榆林的户间空地(13547.4t/km2),已达极强度侵蚀.应加强研究和防治.水蚀泥沙的粒度以0.01~0.05 mm的粗粉沙和0.001~0.005 mm的粘粒为主,分别占到43.98%和19.81%,≥0.05mm的粗泥沙含量明显小于聚落以外的坡面,而且区域变化比较明显,从南到北,细粒成分愈来愈少,粗粒成分越来越多;与土壤粒度相比,粗泥沙水蚀系数在庭院、户间道路、户间空地分别达到0.54,0.55,0.75,平均为0.61.  相似文献   
3.
溶解无机态营养盐在渤海沉积物-海水界面交换通量研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
了解无机态营养严在渤海沉积物-海水界面交换速率、通量基控制因素,于2002-08-06~08-24,应用船基沉积物培养方法,现场测定了硅酸盐(SiO3-Si)、磷酸盐(PO4-P)和溶解无机氮(DIN)在沉积物-海水界面上的交换速率(νN)和交换通量(FN)。结果显示,νSiO3-Si变化范围为2 220~4 317μmol.m-2.d-1,平均为3 466μmol.m-2.d-1,νPO4-P为0.4~77μmol.m-2.d-1,平均为39μmol.m-2.d-1,νDIN为667~2 167μmol.m-2.d-1,平均为1 308μmol.m-2.d-1,其中NH4-N和NO3-N的贡献分别为48%和47%左右。进一步分析表明,νSiO3-Si主要由溶解和扩散2个过程控制,前者决定于沉积物黏土矿物含量和含水率,后者决定于营养盐浓度和温度。νPO4-P主要由在以黏土为主的细颗粒和氢氧化铁上的吸附-解吸和扩散过程控制,前者分别决定于沉积物粒度和上覆水中DO浓度,而后者决定于间隙水与上覆水之间的浓度差。结果表明,FSiO3为2.59×1013mmol,FPO4为2.95×1011mmol,FDIN/SE为8.62×1012mmol。这样,为维持夏季渤海初级生产力,沉积物交换过程可提供大约65%的SiO3-Si、12%的PO4-P和22%的DIN,远远高于以河流径流为主的陆源排放。  相似文献   
4.
Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of in‐stream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates with wood load; the residual volume of pools created in association with wood correlates inversely with drainage area; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but the analyses suggest that sediment volume correlates positively with drainage area and wood volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood appears to change downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Pool volume correlates positively with wood volume and negatively with channel gradient. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. More abundant in‐stream wood and beaver populations present historically equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors and greater residual pool volume. One implication of these changes is that protecting and re‐introducing wood and beavers can be used to restore rivers. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
Current global warming projections suggest a possible increase in wildfire and drought, augmenting the need to understand how drought following wildfire affects the recovery of stream channels in relation to sediment dynamics. We investigated post‐wildfire geomorphic responses caused by storms during a prolonged drought following the 2013 Springs Fire in southern California (USA), using multi‐temporal terrestrial laser scanning and detailed field measurements. After the fire, a dry‐season dry‐ravel sediment pulse contributed sand and small gravel to hillslope‐channel margins in Big Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. A small storm in WY 2014 generated sufficient flow to mobilize a portion of the sediment derived from the dry‐ravel pulse and deposited the fine sediment in the channel, totaling ~0.60 m3/m of volume per unit length of channel. The sediment deposit buried step‐pool habitat structure and reduced roughness by over 90%. These changes altered sediment transport characteristics of the bed material present before and after the storm; the ratio of available to critical shear stress (τoc) increased by five times. Storms during WY 2015 contributed additional fine sediment from tributaries and lower hillslopes and hyperconcentrated flow transported and deposited additional sediment in the channel. Together these sources delivered sediment on the order of six times that in 2014, further increasing τo/τc. These storms during multi‐year drought following wildfire transformed channel dynamics. The increased sediment transport capacity persisted during the drought period characterized by the longer residence time of relatively fine‐grained post‐fire channel sedimentation. This contrasts with wetter years, when post‐fire sediment is transported from the fluvial system during the same season as the post‐fire sediment pulse. Results of this short‐term study highlight the complex and substantial effects of multi‐year drought on geomorphic responses following wildfire. These responses influence pool habitat that is critical to longer‐term post‐wildfire riparian ecosystem recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
Agricultural sediment and pesticide runoff is a widespread ecological and human health concern. Numerical simulation models, such as Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) and Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), have been increasingly used to quantify off‐site agricultural pollutant movement. However, RZWQM has been criticized for its inability to simulate sedimentation processes. The recent incorporation of the sedimentation module of Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems has enabled RZWQM to simulate sediment and sediment‐associated pesticides. This study compares the sediment and pesticide transport simulation performance of the newly released RZWQM and PRZM using runoff data from 2 alfalfa fields in Davis, California. A composite metric (based on coefficient of determination, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, index of agreement, and percent bias) was developed and employed to ensure robust, comprehensive assessment of model performance. Results showed that surface water runoff was predicted reasonably well (absolute percent bias <31%) by RZWQM and PRZM after adjusting important hydrologic parameters. Even after calibration, underestimation bias (?89% ≤ PBIAS ≤ ?36%) for sediment yield was observed in both models. This might be attributed to PRZM's incorrect distribution of input water and uncertainty in RZWQM's runoff erosivity coefficient. Moreover, the underestimation of sediment might be less if the origin of measured sediment was considered. Chlorpyrifos losses were simulated with reasonable accuracy especially for Field A (absolute PBIAS ≤ 22%), whereas diuron losses were underestimated to a great extent (?98% ≤ PBIAS ≤ ?65%) in both models. This could be attributed to the underprediction of herbicide concentration in the top soil due to the limitations of the instantaneous equilibrium sorption model as well as the high runoff potential of herbicide formulated as water‐dispersible granules. RZWQM and PRZM partitioned pesticides into the water and sediment phases similarly. According to model predictions, the majority of pesticide loads were carried via the water phase. On the basis of this study, both RZWQM and PRZM performed well in predicting runoff that carried highly adsorptive pesticides on an event basis, although the more physically based RZWQM is recommended when field‐measured soil hydraulic properties are available.  相似文献   
7.
River channel sediment dynamics are important in integrated catchment management because changes in channel morphology resulting from sediment transfer have important implications for many river functions. However, application of existing approaches that account for catchment‐scale sediment dynamics has been limited, largely due to the difficulty in obtaining data necessary to support them. It is within this context that this study develops a new, reach‐based, stream power balance approach for predicting river channel adjustment. The new approach, named ST:REAM (sediment transport: reach equilibrium assessment method), is based upon calculations of unit bed area stream power (ω) derived from remotely sensed slope, width and discharge datasets. ST:REAM applies a zonation algorithm to values of ω that are spaced every 50 m along the catchment network in order to divide the branches of the network up into relatively homogenous reaches. ST:REAM then compares each reach's ω value with the ω of its upstream neighbour in order to predict whether or not the reach is likely to be either erosion dominated or deposition dominated. The paper describes the application of ST:REAM to the River Taff in South Wales, UK. This test study demonstrated that ST:REAM can be rapidly applied using remotely sensed data that are available across many river catchments and that ST:REAM correctly predicted the status of 87.5% of sites within the Taff catchment that field observations had defined as being either erosion or deposition dominated. However, there are currently a number of factors that limit the usefulness of ST:REAM, including inconsistent performance and the need for additional, resource intensive, data to be collected to both calibrate the model and aid interpretation of its results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
Sediment movement during erosion, transport and deposition greatly affects the ecosystem of river basins. However, there is presently no consensus as to whether particular river basins act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sources or sinks related to these processes. This paper introduces a rule‐of‐thumb coordinate system based on sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and soil humin content (SHC) in order to evaluate the net effect of soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition on CO2 flux in river basins. The SDR–SHC system delineates CO2 source and sink areas, and further divides the sink into strong and weak areas according to the world‐average line. The Yellow River Basin, most severely suffering soil erosion in the world, only appears to be a weak erosion‐induced CO2 sink in this system. The average annual CO2 sequestration is ~0·235 Mt from 1960 to 2008, a relatively small value considering its 3·1% contribution to the World's sediment discharge. The temporal analysis shows that the Yellow River Basin was once a source in the 1960s, but changed its role to become a weak sink in the past 40 years due to both anthropogenic and climatic influences. The spatial analysis identifies the middle sub‐basin as the main source region, and the lower as the main sink. For comparison, sediment‐movement‐related CO2 fluxes of eight other major basins in four continents are examined. It is found that the six basins considered in the Northern Hemisphere appear to be sinks, while the other two in the Southern Hemisphere act as sources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
Efficiency of non‐point source pollution control methods may be altered in future climate. This study investigated climate change impacts on sediment and nutrient transport, and efficiency of best management practices (BMPs), in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was applied to the UPRW using observed flow, sediment and nutrient data. Water quality samples were collected at three US geological survey gauging stations. The model was successfully calibrated and validated for daily time steps (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination – R2 up to 0.7) using manual and automatic (sequential uncertainty fitting version 2) methods from February 2010 to May 2011. Future weather scenarios were simulated using the LARS‐WG model, a stochastic weather generator, with Community Climate System Model, global climate model, which was developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the USA. On the basis of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, climate change scenarios were simulated for the mid (2046–2065) and late (2080–2099) century. Effectiveness of four BMPs (Riparian buffer, stream fencing, sub‐surface manure applications and vegetative filter strips) on reducing sediment and nutrient were evaluated in current and future climate conditions. Results show that sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings will be increased up to a maximum of 26.3%, 7.3% and 14.3%, respectively, in future climate conditions. Furthermore, the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment removal will be reduced in future climate conditions, and the efficiency of nitrogen removal will be increased, whereas phosphorus removal efficiency will remain unchanged. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
东太平洋海隆深海热液区沉积物古菌多样性分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用PCR-RFLP方法对东太平洋海隆深海热液区3个站位沉积物中的古菌多样性进行了初步研究.结果显示,从古菌16S rRNA基因文库中随机挑取的296个阳性克隆分属奇古菌门(Thaumarchaeota,47.64%)、广古菌门(Euryarchaeota,44.93%)、泉古菌门(Crenarchaeota,6.77%)和未分类古菌(0.68%),其中优势菌群为奇古菌门的亚硝化侏儒菌属(Nitrosopumilus,35.47%)和广古菌门的热原体纲(Thermoplasmata,27.03%),DHVE3、DHVE5、DHVE6、MBGB和MBGE类群在沉积物样品中也均有发现.另外,3个站位沉积物中古菌类群组成存在差异,S5-TVG1站位样品文库的97个古菌克隆分属奇古菌门(49.48%)、广古菌门(49.48%)和泉古菌门(1.03%),S14-TVG10站位样品文库的103个古菌克隆由奇古菌门(84.47%)和广古菌门(15.53%)组成,S16-TVG12站位样品文库的96个古菌克隆包括广古菌门(71.88%)、泉古菌门(19.79%)、奇古菌门(6.25%)和未分类古菌(2.08%).研究结果表明,东太平洋海隆深海热液区沉积物中古菌多样性丰富,存在着许多新的古菌菌群;不同站位古菌菌群结构以及多样性存在差异,这与其所处环境的热液活动密切相关.  相似文献   
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