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1.
The effects of several nutritional factors on the growth and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production of diatom Nitzschia laevis were studied. 4 LDM (quadrupled concentration of the nutrient salt) was the optimal concentration of nutrient salt for the growth and EPA production of N. laevis. The growth of N. laevis was inhibited when the glucose concentration was either lower than 10 gL−1 or higher than 15 gL−1. Both sodium nitrate and urea were good nitrogen sources for the growth and EPA production, while ammonium chloride seriously decreased the dry cell weight (DW) and the EPA content. Silicate seriously influenced the growth of N. laevis. The maximum DW of 2.34 gL−1 was obtained in the presence of 150 mgL−1 Na2SiO3·9H2O. The EPA content remained almost the same when the silicate concentration was lower than 150 mgL−1; however, higher silicate concentrations resulted in a steady decrease of EPA content. Low medium salinity (⩽29) did not seem to influence the DW of N. laevis, and high salinity resulted in a decrease of DW. The highest EPA content (4.08%) and yield (110 mgL−1) were observed at the salinity of 36 and 29, respectively.  相似文献   
2.
Lake Caviahue (northern Patagonia, Argentina) is a large glacial lake acidified by volcanic fluids from Copahue volcano. The lake and the feeding rivers were sampled annually from 1997 till early 2006, including the eruptive period of 2000. Lake Caviahue waters evolved over time, with the most concentrated waters in 2000 during the eruptive period, followed by gradual dilution that was interrupted by renewed acidification in 2003–2004. Inversion of the lake water data and application of a dynamic non-steady state model for the lake provides our best quantitative estimates for the variation in element fluxes over the 9-year period. The model flux results agree well with most of the measured fluxes. The Copahue hydrothermal system had gently declining element fluxes between 1997 and mid-1999, although the lake was still becoming more concentrated. About 2–3 months before the 2000 eruption, element fluxes increased strongly, but the hydrothermal fluxes almost shutoff directly after the main eruptive events. The fluxes of several elements recovered post-2001, with an increase in element fluxes in 2003–2004; the lake became more dilute between 2004 and 2006. The intrusion of new magma into the hydrothermal system just prior to the 2000 eruption led to enhanced water rock interaction, with higher concentrations of the rock forming elements in the fluids, and the hot spring flow rate increased as a result of the higher pressure in the reservoir. The fluids became saturated in alunite and jarosite, and they were already saturated with anhydrite. Precipitation of these minerals possibly led to a decreased permeability of the hydrothermal reservoir, leading to the strongly reduced element fluxes just after the eruption. In addition, K, Al and S were retained in the newly precipitated minerals as well, further diminishing their export. The acidification in 2003–2004 may have resulted from a new small intrusion of magma or resulted from seismic activity that created new permeability and fresh rock surfaces for water rock interaction. The volcano is a significant source of toxic trace elements such as F, As, B and Li as well as a nutrient (P) for the local watershed. Monitoring of the hydrothermal fluids in the river that drains Copahue, especially the S/Cl, Mg/Cl and Mg/K values as well as the magnitude of the element fluxes would provide the best information for eruption forecasting for this volcano.  相似文献   
3.
有毒赤潮藻及其毒素的危害与检测   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
海洋中可引发赤潮的藻类约有300种,其中有毒赤潮藻为80种左右。现已知道的赤潮藻主要毒素有麻痹性贝毒、腹泻性贝毒、记忆缺失性贝毒、神经性贝毒、西加鱼度和溶血性毒素,前5种毒素的结构已经基本得到证实。有毒赤潮藻的毒素可以在海洋生物体内积累,人类误食含有藻毒素的食品时可能中毒,严重者还可能死亡。海洋有毒赤潮藻及其毒素的检测已经成为当今全球赤潮研究和监测的重要内容之一,可以通过形态学分类方法、分子生物学技术(遗传探针)和免疫学检测技术对有毒赤潮藻进行检测;可以通过生物学、物理化学检测方法和神经受体结合、免疫学检测技术对赤潮藻毒素进行检测。  相似文献   
4.
中国近海藻毒素及有毒微藻产毒原因种调查研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
麻痹性贝类毒素在我国近海污染问题已十分突出,基本呈现逐年加剧的趋势。20世纪90年代,南海麻痹性贝类毒素污染较重; 21世纪初,北黄海麻痹性贝类毒素污染较重;近几年,渤海和福建近海麻痹性贝类毒素污染较重;可产生麻痹性贝类毒素的微藻有亚历山大藻和裸甲藻等。采用小鼠生物法检测我国近海腹泻性贝类毒素超标率32%左右,采用液相色谱/质谱法检测,仅有3起超标的研究报道;现行小鼠生物法检测腹泻性贝类毒素假阳性问题十分突出,应尽快废除;腹泻性贝类毒素均是脂溶性的,脂溶性海洋生物毒素在我国近海常年可检出,偶有虾夷扇贝毒素和鳍藻毒素超标现象。可产生脂溶性毒素微藻有鳍藻和原甲藻及网状原角藻等。失忆性贝类毒素在我国近海常有检出,但无超标现象;产毒微藻有拟菱形藻等。西加鱼毒素在我国南海污染较重,但毒素标准物质的匮乏,限制了西加鱼毒素的调查研究;至今尚未确定产生西加鱼毒素的微藻。酶联免疫吸附法和液相色谱串联质谱法相结合已成为藻毒素快速准确检测成熟的技术,逐渐代替小鼠生物法和液相色谱法。  相似文献   
5.
以中国南海常见的多毛类——华美盘管虫(Hydroides elegans)作为受试生物,分别研究了吡啶硫酮铜和吡啶硫酮锌对早期不同发育阶段的华美盘管虫的急性毒理效应。发现暴露于吡啶硫酮铜的华美盘管虫精子和卵子的受精半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为19.49μg/L和88.44μg/L,担轮幼虫24 h半数致死浓度(24h-LC50)和48 h半数致死浓度(48h-LC50)分别为7.35μg/L和5.00μg/L,后担轮幼虫24h-LC50和48h-LC50分别为8.57μg/L和5.87μg/L;暴露于吡啶硫酮锌的华美盘管虫精子和卵子的受精IC50分别为36.74μg/L和159.59μg/L,担轮幼虫24 h-LC50和48 h-LC50分别为8.57μg/L和6.67μg/L,后担轮幼虫24 h-LC50和48 h-LC50分别为12.03μg/L和8.07μg/L。表明华美盘管虫早期发育的不同阶段对吡啶硫酮铜和吡啶硫酮锌的敏感性表现出一定差异,与配子受精率和后担轮幼虫的毒性反应相比,担轮幼虫对吡啶硫酮铜和吡啶硫酮锌的毒性表现出较高的敏感性;而且,对吡啶硫酮铜的敏感性普遍高于吡啶硫酮锌。  相似文献   
6.
民用煤室内燃烧条件下多环芳烃的排放特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
民用燃煤是我国最大的室外和室内空气污染源.为了研究不同煤种在民用燃烧条件下多环芳烃(PAH)的排放特征,对5种成熟度不同的煤种(4种烟煤和1种无烟煤)以蜂窝煤形式燃烧产生的烟气进行采集,对其中24种PAHs进行定量分析,并与原煤的二氯甲烷(DCM)抽提物进行对比.结果表明,不同煤种的PAH排放因子差别显著,无烟煤的排放因子比烟煤低3个数量级,24种PAHs总和仅为184 μg/kg,烟煤则为136~408 mg/kg;原煤PAH抽提率的情况与之相似,无烟煤为4 mg/kg,烟煤为96~156 mg/kg.各种类型PAH(母体PAH、甲基PAH和含O/S-PAH)所占比例在不同煤种之间存在差异,但在烟气中和原煤抽提物的情况一致,说明民用燃煤前后PAH具有一定的继承性.通过4组毒性当量参数的比较,发现无烟煤燃烧烟气中的PAH毒性当量比原煤抽提物明显减少,而烟煤则表现为不同程度的增加.  相似文献   
7.
初步研究了一定粒径的转炉钢渣对日本对虾(Penaeus japonicus)幼虾和中国明对虾(fenneropenaeus chinensis)幼虾的急性毒性效应。实验结果显示,当钢渣质量浓度为1.8g/L时,日本对虾幼虾96h的最高死亡率为33.33%;随着钢渣质量浓度的增加,死亡率增高;当钢渣质量浓度为18g/L时,其96h的最大死亡率达到了75%。相对于日本对虾幼虾,钢渣质量浓度为18g/L时中国明对虾幼虾96h的最高死亡率只有36.67%。运用直线内插法求出钢渣对日本对虾幼虾96h半致死浓度为1.62g/L,钢渣对日本对虾的安全浓度为0.162g/L,而在实验条件下中国明对虾幼虾的半致死浓度要明显高于日本对虾幼虾。  相似文献   
8.
湿地芦苇对有毒重金属元素的抗性及吸收和累积   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
通过对大冶市铜绿山铜矿区人工湿地中芦苇的野外调查和Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd、Cr 5种有毒重金属元素的测试分析发现,该区芦苇对有毒重金属元素具有良好的抗性.同时,该湿地芦苇对5种重金属元素的吸收和累积表现出两种不同的模式:①芦苇植物体内Zn、Cu、Cd质量分数及分配百分比表现为根>叶>茎,且根组织中Zn、Cu、Cd的质量分数及分配百分比远远高于其他组织(茎、叶),而叶组织中略高于茎组织;②芦苇体内Pb和Cr质量分数及分配百分比表现为根>茎>叶,根、茎、叶组织中的质量分数及分配百分比均较高且基本相当,差异不明显.生物富集系数的计算结果显示,芦苇不同组织(根、茎、叶)对有毒重金属元素的生物富集能力存在较大差异,根组织的生物富集能力最大,且容易富集Pb和Cd;而茎、叶组织的生物富集能力较低,易富集Pb.  相似文献   
9.
Freshwater lakes are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to environmental contamination. This study was initiated to assess the spatial distribution, fractionation, ecological risk of selected potentially toxic metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni) in bottom sediments of the Zarivar lake, the second largest freshwater lake in Iran. The results revealed that Pb, Zn and Cu had the high spatial variability (coefficient of variation >50) across the sampling sites and their maximum concentrations (197.5 for Pb, 198.7 for Zn and 185.6 mg/kg for Cu) were observed in sampling sites from the northern, western and eastern margins of the lake. Cr and Ni with average concentrations of 28.3 and 31.38 mg/kg respectively, exhibited low spatial variability (coefficient of variation <20) and their concentrations did not vary significantly among the sampling sites. Based on the redundancy analysis (RDA), sediment organic matter was strongly correlated with Pb, Zn and Cu while Fe2O3 and Al2O3 showed a positive correlation with Ni and Cr. The calculated average enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed that the contamination level of metals can be arranged in the following order of Pb> Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni. Results from the modified five-step sequential extraction analysis indicated that 40 % of total Pb and Zn were associated with the reducible fraction, 45 % of Cu with the oxidizable fraction and more than 80 % of total Ni and Cr were retrieved from the residual fraction. It was also noticed that Pb, Zn and Cu were more incorporated into the non-residual fractions in the sites with a higher total concentration of these metals, suggesting that both total concentration and fractionation behavior of metals were influenced by their potential sources in the study area. Ecological risk assessment using the potential ecological risk index (PERI) and the modified potential ecological risk index (MPERI) showed that sediments from the eight sampling sites pose a moderate to considerable risk whereas the other sites had low ecological risk level. In comparison to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the effects range low (ERL) and probable effect level (PEL) values for Pb, Cu and Zn were exceeded at some sampling sites while Ni and Cr concentrations were found to be below or close to their SQGs values at all the sampling sites. Pb was generally identified as the contaminant of most concern in the study area. Taking into account the results obtained from the fractionation study and the source contribution estimate, it can be inferred that the Pb, Zn and Cu with the average contribution of 79, 54 and 64 % respectively, were mainly derived from anthropogenic sources whereas Ni and Cr with the estimated contribution of 80 and 89 % were predominately from the lithogenic source.  相似文献   
10.
麻痹性贝类毒素污染是世界共同关注和重点管控的食品安全问题, 其溯源一直是产业监管的难点和技术重点。基于指纹溯源技术理论, 采用室内模拟3种产毒藻暴露紫贻贝后风险形成过程, 开发基于超高效液相色谱-四极杆-静电场轨道阱高分辨质谱(UPLC-Q-Exactive MS)鉴定麻痹性贝类毒素区域特征的指纹溯源技术。结果表明, 采用乙腈/甲醇/丙酮(体积比为1︰1︰1)混合溶液作为提取剂, C8色谱柱联合正离子模式, 质荷比(m/z) 100~600和Amide色谱柱联合正离子模式, m/z 600~1 500作为色谱质谱检测条件下, 提取的化合物数量较多且稳定性良好, 覆盖了40.4%指纹信息; 紫贻贝与产毒藻中的共检出11种毒素成分, 且具有高度相关性。N-磺酰胺甲酰基类毒素(如C类)和膝沟藻毒素(GTX类)在暴露期发生了显著的代谢转化; 将摄食3种产毒藻后紫贻贝的差异化合物与特征毒素组分进行主成分分析及正交偏最小二乘法判别分析, 共筛选出13种复合指纹物质。构建6种特征物质的Fisher判别模型, 交叉验证准确率为88.9%, 可实现产毒藻种溯源。该研究建立了基于超高效液相色谱-四极杆-静电场轨道阱高分辨质谱UPLC-Q-Exactive MS紫贻贝特征指纹溯源技术, 初步实现了从污染麻痹性贝类毒素的贝类到肇事藻种的逆向溯源,可应用于贻贝麻痹性贝类毒素风险溯源研究。  相似文献   
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