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1.
The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review   总被引:9,自引:9,他引:5  
During the 1950s and 1960s, an extensive field study and interpretive effort was made by researchers, primarily at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, to sample and understand the physical oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific. That work was inspired by the valuable fisheries of the region, the recent discovery of the equatorial undercurrent, and the growing realization of the importance of the El Niño phenomenon. Here we review what was learned in that effort, and integrate those findings with work published since then as well as additional diagnoses based on modern data sets.Unlike the central Pacific, where the winds are nearly zonal and the ocean properties and circulation are nearly independent of longitude, the eastern tropical Pacific is distinguished by wind forcing that is strongly influenced by the topography of the American continent. Its circulation is characterized by short zonal scales, permanent eddies and significant off-equatorial upwelling. Notably, the Costa Rica Dome and a thermocline bowl to its northwest are due to winds blowing through gaps in the Central American cordillera, which imprint their signatures on the ocean through linear Sverdrup dynamics. Strong annual modulation of the gap winds and the meridional oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone generates a Rossby wave, superimposed on the direct forcing, that results in a southwestward-propagating annual thermocline signal accounting for major features of observed thermocline depth variations, including that of the Costa Rica Dome, the Tehuantepec bowl, and the ridge–trough system of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). Interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and altimetric sea surface height signals suggests that the strengthening of the NECC observed in the central Pacific during El Niño events continues all the way to the coast, warming SST (by zonal advection) in a wider meridional band than the equatorially trapped thermocline anomalies, and pumping equatorial water poleward along the coast.The South Equatorial Current originates as a combination of equatorial upwelling, mixing and advection from the NECC, and Peru coastal upwelling, but its sources and their variability remain unresolved. Similarly, while much of the Equatorial Undercurrent flows southeast into the Peru Undercurrent and supplies the coastal upwelling, a quantitative assessment is lacking. We are still unable to put together the eastern interconnections among the long zonal currents of the central Pacific.  相似文献
2.
大鹏湾潮流数值计算   总被引:8,自引:8,他引:1  
应用分步杂交方法建立了大鹏湾边界潮流数值模型,并对其进行了模拟计算,重现了该区域潮波及潮流的分布规律,并根据实测资料对其进行了验证,从而可系统地了解这一海区的潮波系统及潮流场等海洋要素的分布情况。  相似文献
3.
Atmospheric forcing of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review   总被引:8,自引:8,他引:1  
The increase in marine, land surface, atmospheric and satellite data during recent decades has led to an improved understanding of the air–sea interaction processes in the eastern tropical Pacific. This is also thanks to extensive diagnoses from conceptual and coupled ocean–atmosphere numerical models. In this paper, mean fields of atmospheric variables, such as incoming solar radiation, sea level pressure, winds, wind stress curl, precipitation, evaporation, and surface energy fluxes, are derived from global atmospheric data sets in order to examine the dominant features of the low level atmospheric circulations of the region. The seasonal march of the atmospheric circulations is presented to depict the role of radiative forcing on atmospheric perturbations, especially those dominating the atmosphere at low levels.In the tropics, the trade winds constitute an important north–south energy and moisture exchange mechanism (as part of the low level branch of the Hadley circulation), that determines to a large extent the precipitation distribution in the region, i.e., that associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Monsoonal circulations also play an important role in determining the warm season precipitation distribution over the eastern tropical Pacific through a large variety of air–sea–land interaction mechanisms. Westward traveling waves, tropical cyclones, low latitude cold air intrusions, and other synoptic and mesoscale perturbations associated with the ITCZ are also important elements that modulate the annual rainfall cycle. The low-level jets of the Gulf of California, the Intra-Americas Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea) and Chocó, Colombia are prominent features of the eastern tropical Pacific low-level circulations related to sub-regional and regional scale precipitation patterns. Observations show that the Intra-Americas Low-Level Jet intensity varies with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases, however its origin and role in the westward propagation and development of disturbances that may hit the eastern tropical Pacific, such as easterly waves and tropical cyclones, are still unclear. Changes in the intensity of the trade winds in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (associated with eastern tropical Pacific wind jets) exert an important control on precipitation by means of wind–topography interactions. Gaps in the mountains of southern Mexico and Central America allow strong wind jets to pass over the continent imprinting a unique signal in sea surface temperatures and ocean dynamics of the eastern tropical Pacific.The warm pools of the Americas constitute an important source of moisture for the North American Monsoon System. The northeastern tropical Pacific is a region of intense cyclogenetic activity, just west of the coast of Mesoamerica. Over the oceanic regions, large-scale properties of key variables such as precipitation, moisture, surface energy fluxes and wind stress curl are still uncertain, which inhibits a more comprehensive view of the region and stresses the importance of regional field experiments. Progress has been substantial in the understanding of the ocean and atmospheric dynamics of the eastern tropical Pacific, however, recent observational evidence such as that of a shallow meridional circulation cell in that region, in contrast to the classic concept of the Hadley-type deep meridional circulation, suggests that more in situ observations to validate theories are still necessary.This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.  相似文献
4.
An assessment of global ocean wave energy resources over the last 45 a   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:1  
Against the background of the current world facing an energy crisis,and human beings puzzled by the problems of environment and resources,developing clean energy sources becomes the inevitable choice to deal with a climate change and an energy shortage.A global ocean wave energy resource was reanalyzed by using ERA-40 wave reanalysis data 1957–2002 from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF).An effective significant wave height is defined in the development of wave energy resources(short as effective SWH),and the total potential of wave energy is exploratively calculated.Synthetically considering a wave energy density,a wave energy level probability,the frequency of the effective SWH,the stability and long-term trend of wave energy density,a swell index and a wave energy storage,global ocean wave energy resources were reanalyzed and regionalized,providing reference to the development of wave energy resources such as wave power plant location,seawater desalination,heating,pumping.  相似文献
5.
6.
两层流体中内孤立波与潜体相互作用数值模拟   总被引:6,自引:1,他引:5  
提出基于双推板的内孤立波数值造波方法,对两层流体中内孤立波与潜体的相互作用进行了数值模拟,分析不同潜深下潜体所受的内孤立波载荷特性.结果表明,内孤立波对水下潜体的载荷作用是不可忽视的.特别地,当潜体位于内孤立波中时,其所受的垂向力要远比潜体位于内孤立波下时的大.  相似文献
7.
渤黄东海潮波数值模拟   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:28  
利用考虑引潮力的非线性球面潮波方程,数值模拟渤黄东海的潮波运动,将计算结果与实测资料作比较。依据所得结果绘制M2,S2,K1,O1和M4的同潮图和潮流椭圆,并进行讨论。研究表明,K1和O1的同位相线在台湾附近先作顺时针方向旋转然后作逆时针方向旋转,该现象是由于大陆架和大陆坡水深分布和台湾存在的结果。同时也发现最大流速时刻比高潮时刻提前,是摩擦和旋转潮液系统中的驻波成份所引起的。对该海区的非线性潮波部分的模拟作了首次尝试。可以看出:M4有18个旋转潮波系统,其中6个作顺时针方向旋转,12个作逆时针方向旋转;在江苏南部海岸和杭州湾口的外海区域以及渤海湾和大部分的莱州湾,由M2引起的潮汐余水位为正,而在海区的其余部分这种余水位为负;由M2引起的潮汐余流总体上向南或向东南方向流动。  相似文献
8.
后弯管波力发电浮标模型性能试验研究   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:0  
为改进后弯管波力发电浮标的性能,对多种模型进行了新一轮试验研究。测定了它们的气室平均输出气流功率随波周期的变化曲线NA-T;试验了不同质量对性能的影响;测出了不同喷咀比ε的波高比Hi/Ho、压力比ΔPi/Ho和波能转换效率ηA。确定了最佳浮体——前方后园浮室后伸型后弯管浮体的尺寸、质量和性能参数。  相似文献
9.
多点系泊下后弯管波力发电浮体模型试验研究   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:1  
在大型造波水池中,对最佳后弯管浮体模型3-3,进行了多点系泊下浮体模型试验研究。测定了该模型在不同系泊条件下,气室平均输出气流功率随波周期的变化曲线NA-T,最大锚泊力与入射波高之比随波周期的变化曲线Fmax/Ho-T和最大纵荡距离与入射波高Ho之比随波周期变化曲线Xmax/Ho-T。选定L型链三点系泊为最佳系泊方案。进行了不同喷嘴比的性能试验和不类来波方向的试验,测定了浮体波能转换性能、最大锚泊力、最大纵荡距离随来波方向的变化。  相似文献
10.
The HY-2 satellite was successfully launched on 16 August 2011. The HY-2 significant wave height (SWH) is validated by the data from the South China Sea (SCS) field experiment, National Data Buoy Center (NDBC/ buoys and Jason-1/2 altimeters, and is corrected using a linear regression with in-situ measurements. Com- pared with NDBC SWH, the HY-2 SWH show a RMS of 0.36 m, which is similar to Jason- 1 and Jason-2 SWH with the RMS of 0.35 m and 0.37 m respectively; the RMS of corrected HY-2 SWH is 0.27 m, similar to 0.27 m and 0.23 m of corrected Jason-1 and Jason-2 SWH. Therefore the accuracy of HY-2 SWH products is close to that of Jason-1/2 SWH, and the linear regression function derived can improve the accuracy of HY-2 SWH products.  相似文献
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