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1.
Spatial patterns of interannual sea level variations in the South China Sea (SCS) are investigated by analyzing an EOF-based 2-dimensional past sea level reconstruction from 1950 to 2009 and satellite altimetry data from 1993 to 2009. Long-term tide gauge records from 14 selected stations in this region are also used to assess the quality of reconstructed sea levels and determine the rate of sea level along the coastal area. We found that the rising rate of sea levels derived from merged satellite altimetry data during 1993–2009 and past sea level reconstruction over 1950–2009 is about 3.9 ± 0.6 mm/yr and 1.7 ± 0.1 mm/yr, respectively. For the longer period, this rate is not significantly different from the global mean rate (of 1.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr). The interannual mean sea level of the SCS region appears highly correlated with Niño 4 indices (a proxy of El Niño-Southern Oscillation/ENSO), suggesting that the interannual sea level variations over the SCS region is driven by ENSO events. Interpolation of the reconstructed sea level data for 1950–2009 at sites where tide gauge records are of poor quality (either short or gapped) show that sea level along the Chinese coastal area is rising faster than the global mean rate of 1.8 mm/yr. At some sites, the rate is up to 2.5 mm/yr.  相似文献   
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3.
Although significant advancements on protecting marine biodiversity and ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea have been made, much remains to be done to achieve the targets set by the Convention for Biological Diversity (and the Barcelona Convention) and ratified by the 21 Mediterranean governments. Particularly, these targets require the design and implementation of an ecologically representative network of marine protected areas that covers 10% of the Mediterranean surface by 2020. Despite the many efforts to gather spatial information about threats to the Mediterranean and conservation planning initiatives that identify sensitive areas for conservation, we are far from achieving this target. In this paper, we briefly review existing and proposed conservation initiatives at various scales throughout the Mediterranean to recognise those that have political endorsement and those that serve more as lobbying tools. We then propose a model process that can be applied to advance marine spatial planning within the eleven ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSAs) through a multi-step process designed for moving conservation forward in this particularly complex region. The proposed process combines tenets of professional urban/regional planning and systematic conservation planning. As shown with two specific examples, despite some conventional wisdom, there is enough information on the Mediterranean Sea to move forward with ecosystem-based marine spatial management for conservation purposes using the EBSAs as a starting point - and the time is right to do so.  相似文献   
4.
Marine spatial planning (MSP) has a need for spatial delimitation and for the identification of spatial classes. This paper reports on the findings of a pilot study that was undertaken to test the development of a data informed spatial typology for the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a comparatively shallow sea with nine adjoining countries and intense anthropogenic activities. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability and value of such a spatial typology for MSP. A spatial typology with seven different spatial classes was identified. The approach used here to identify a spatial typology could be used for seas worldwide.  相似文献   
5.
根据2011年6月茅尾海生态环境调查资料,对该海域海水和表层沉积物中叶绿素a的空间分布进行了分析。结果表明,海水叶绿素a变化范围1.384~4.060 mg/m3,平均值为2.143 mg/m3,表层沉积物叶绿素a范围为0.006~0.740 mg/kg(湿重),均值为0.124 mg/kg;海水与表层沉积物叶绿素a均呈现自河口向南逐渐降低的空间分布特征。单位面积表层沉积物叶绿素a平均含量为上方水柱叶绿素a平均含量的129.44%,沉积物对该海域初级生产力有显著的潜在贡献。相关分析表明,海水和沉积物叶绿素a均与无机氮及底栖动物栖息密度呈显著或极显著的正相关关系(P0.05或P0.01)。  相似文献   
6.
西沙周缘新生代构造演化与盆地充填响应特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
利用南海西沙周缘地震资料,进行了地震相研究,并结合邻区地质资料,进行了南海西沙周缘新生代沉积相分析,讨论了盆地的充填演化历史。研究认为,南海西沙周缘盆地充填断陷期以陆相和海陆过渡相沉积为主;坳陷期以海陆过渡相和海相沉积为主,自下而上充填了一套冲积相-湖相(始新统)-海陆交替相(渐新统)-滨浅海台地相(中-下中新统)-浅海、半深海相(上新统-第四系)沉积序列,盆地的充填历史反映了南海西沙周缘沉积环境由陆相向海相逐渐过渡的过程。通过对油气地质条件分析,认为始新世-渐新世早期是重要的烃源岩发育期;渐新世晚期-中新世中期是储层发育期;中新世晚期后是区域该层发育时期。  相似文献   
7.
The sea level variations along Visakhapatnam coast are governed by astronomical tides and nontidal oscillations including atmospheric pressure, winds, coastal currents, Ekman Pumping, and river influx. Tidal and nontidal sea level oscillations are usually studied separately because of the vastly different ways in which they are forced. In this study the tidal oscillations along Visakhapatnam are analyzed using GOTIC2 tidal model. The correlation between monthly mean sea level and monthly mean tides is 47% (r = 0.68) and increases to 54% (r = 0.74) when applied for inverse-barometric effect. The major six partial tides are computed and presented. The tidal variations from Neap tide to Spring tide are studied.  相似文献   
8.
The effect of sea surface height (SSH) variability is one of the primary factors that limit the accuracy and resolution of altimeter-derived gravity values. We propose a method to estimate the influence of variation of the sea surface height on the accuracy of satellite-derived gravity by simulation technique, with a case study around Indonesian waters. Wederived an Indonesian marine gravity map using the Geosat-geodetic mission (GM). Since most of the area studied is located around coastal and shallow areas, the measurement of SSH of this area is less accurate. To obtain a distribution of SSH variability over the study area, Topex/Poseidon (T/P) data were first processed and assessed. Processing 52 cycles of the Topex/Poseidon data, the root mean square (RMS) of SSH variability for each cycle was found to vary from 1 to 179 cm. Further, for the purpose of estimating the accuracy of altimeter-derived gravity, we derived several levels of Gaussian noise, computed simulation data by adding the Gaussian noise to Geosat data, and determined simulated gravity maps. Based on the distribution of RMS values from T/P data and standard deviation (STD) differences between the simulated and the original gravity maps, we estimated the accuracy of the gravity map. Around Indonesian waters, the accuracy of the gravity map influenced by SSH variation was estimated to be within the range 0.8~93 mgal.  相似文献   
9.
Coastal inundation associated with extreme sea levels is the main factor which leads to the loss of life and property whenever a severe tropical cyclonic storm hits the Indian coasts. The Andhra and Orissa coasts are most vulnerable for coastal inundation due to extreme rise in sea levels associated with tropical cyclones. Loss of life may be minimized if extreme sea levels and associated coastal flooding is predicted well in advance. Keeping this in view, location specific coastal inundation models are developed and applied for the Andhra and Orissa coasts of India. Several numerical experiments are carried out using the data of past severe cyclones that struck these regions. The simulated inland inundation distances are found to be in general agreement with the reported flooding.  相似文献   
10.
The reproductive cycle of the demosponge Sarcotragus spinosulus from two different shallow environments (La Pierta and La Strea) of the Ionian coasts of Apulia (SE Italy) was studied from February 2006 to February 2007 in 20 tagged specimens. The sponge is viviparous. All the monitored specimens showed sexual reproduction, even if the process usually involved small portions of the sponge tissue. Most of the specimens showed hermaphroditism, with contemporaneous production of oocytes and spermatic cysts in the same reproductive season. Young oocytes occurred from June to September in specimens from La Pierta and from June to October in those from La Strea. Large mature eggs, measuring up to 200 μm, showed a peak in August to September, concomitant with the appearance of spermatic cysts, whose density values were about 100 times higher than those estimated for female elements. At La Pierta, embryos were present for 11 months, whereas at La Strea they were very scarce during the first 4 months of observation, with the results that there was a significant difference in the production of embryos between the two groups of sponges. Embryo development occurred in patches inside the choanosomal region. Cleavage started in September and led in June to a solid stereoblastula, which, only at La Pierta, produced parenchymella larva (371.3 + 31.3 μm on average) from June to July. In the specimens from La Strea, larvae were never observed. The slight differences in the reproductive cycle between the two groups of sponges may be explained in the light of the major variability of the environmental parameters which could have affected the specimens from La Strea negatively.  相似文献   
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