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1.
国外脆弱性理论模型与评估框架研究评述   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
目前,脆弱性研究作为一种新的研究范式已经在多学科领域中得到了广泛应用,并取得了丰硕成果.但随着研究的深入,学者们发现,由于学科背景及研究视角的差异性,不同研究领域之间存在着结论不兼容和工作重复等问题,迫切需要一个可行的理论模型与评估框架来整合其理论和实践的研究.在对脆弱性概念内涵的发展演变过程分析的基础上,对国外多学科领域中的脆弱性理论模型及评估框架进行了对比研究和评述.研究发现:脆弱性概念的泛化是制约通用脆弱性理论模型与评估框架的关键因素,结合未来脆弱性研究的发展方向,对整合的脆弱性理论模型与评估框架提出了4个方面的要求,即多时空尺度特征、多重扰动特征、耦合系统特征和人文特征.  相似文献   
2.
Palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs), are the natural record of overbank flooding and are often found within aeolian loess‐soil profiles along the river valleys of the middle Yellow River basin. These pedo‐stratigraphic sequences are studied using a multi‐disciplinarily approach to reconstruct Holocene hydro‐climatic variations. Our field investigations along the lower Jinghe River valley have identified palaeoflood SWDs at several sites along the riverbanks based on sedimentological criteria. Analytical results, including magnetic susceptibility, particle‐size distribution and concentrations of chemical elements, indicate that these well‐sorted palaeoflood SWD beds were deposited from the suspended sediment load in floodwaters. We identify two episodes of extraordinary palaeoflood events along the Jinghe River valley. These hydro‐climatic events were dated to 4200–4000 and 3200–2800 a BP, by using the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with archaeological dating of retrieved anthropogenic remains, and with pedo‐stratigraphic correlations with the previously studied Holocene pedo‐stratigraphy in the Jinghe River drainage basin. The flooding events are therefore considered to be a regional expression of known climatic events in the northern hemisphere and demonstrate Holocene climate was far from stable. This study provides important data in understanding the interactions between regional hydro‐climatic systems and global change in semi‐arid and sub‐humid regions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Three main topics including the floor motion action mechanism, the test frame design, and the target spectrum simulation presented in the paper are discussed specifically. Floor motion action mechanism is critical in understanding the seismic performance of architectural nonstructural components. Seismic sensitiveness and earthquake response properties of the nonstructural components should be considered in the design of the test frame for the shaking table test. Target spectrum simulation is also a challenging job in the shaking table test, in which dynamic characteristics of the specimen, performance of the shaking table facilities, and the control techniques should be all considered. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
绝对重力仪研制中一种新的自由落体轨迹重建算法   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
真空系统中落体做自由下落运动的轨迹重建算法,是进行拟合求解绝对重力测量结果的关键步骤之一.在自主研制小型高精度激光干涉绝对重力仪的过程中,基于目前高速发展的数字测量技术,提出一种自由落体轨迹重建的算法.其基本原理是:首先通过高速采样,得到落体自由下落过程中产生的一系列数字化的激光干涉信号;其次通过数字处理算法提取干涉信...  相似文献   
5.
Great uncertainties remain in the impact of cropping systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in paddy fields that hold a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to examine trends on SOC stocks in unfertilized and fertilized fields from three of the most common rice cropping systems in China. Results showed that rice cropping without any nutrient application (Control) significantly increased SOC stocks by 9% compared to the initial level in double rice cropping systems (DR), whereas no significant effects were observed in single rice cropping systems (SR) and rice-upland crop rotation systems (RU). Paddy soils sequestered C in all the three cropping systems under inorganic NPK fertilization, and the magnitude of the increase in SOC stocks was in the order DR > RU > SR. Soil C stocks increased with the increasing cropping duration. Continuous rice cropping for more than 20?years led to average SOC gains of 15% and 23% in the control and NPK treatments, respectively. Furthermore, it seems that C sequestration was still occurring in the longest fields from the included studies. Thus, no SOC saturation trend was found over the investigated cropping duration. However, the negative relationship between SOC changes and their initial C stocks suggests indirectly the possibility of SOC saturation in paddy fields.  相似文献   
6.
崇左市气象台站装备维修保障的思考   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
通过对崇左市气象部门技术装备保障工作现状的分析,找出了崇左市气象部门技术装备保障工作存在的主要问题,并提出了相应的解决办法。  相似文献   
7.
西昌昔格达组物质组成及源区分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
西昌昔格达组主要由杂色水平纹层状粘土(岩)及粉细砂(岩)构成,偶夹砂卵石层,以水平层理为主,粉细砂层中偶见交错层理.粘土(岩)的成岩程度高于粉细砂(岩),但后者中含有完全成岩的粉细砂岩条带.粘土(岩)由27%~35%的绿泥石、18%~26%的绢云母、27%~35%的石英和13%~20%的斜长石组成.其Al2O3/SiO...  相似文献   
8.
地形变应变张量矩阵的不变量分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在给出正交曲线坐标系的有关位移向量及其全微分、位移梯度矩阵、应变张量矩阵的普适表达式的基础上,又给出了任意两种正交曲线坐标系下的应变张量矩阵的普适转换表达式,并指出:由于该变换矩阵为正交矩阵,故应变张量矩阵为相似矩阵.并对应变张量矩阵的几何物理性质进行了分析,指出任何一种正交曲线坐标系的应变张量矩阵都具有唯一不变的主应...  相似文献   
9.
地震预警中的单台综合定位方法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
基于日本基盘强震观测网中某个地震事件首个地震台记录的震级在4级以上、震中距为30~100km的强震数据,运用B-△法和Voronoi多边形法相结合的方法计算震中距.结果表明,B-△法和Voronoi多边形法相结合计算出的震中距与单用B-△法的计算结果相比,单台定位所用时间相同,但其定位精度明显提高.  相似文献   
10.
We used data from bottom trawl surveys to study the factors influencing the abundance of small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS). The resource density index (RDI) was generally higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. RDIs were also significantly greater in the SYS than in the ECS in summer and autumn. The bottom water salinity and depth of spatial distribution of small yellow croaker was similar between the two areas in summer, but different in other seasons. Regression analysis suggested that environmental factors such as bottom water temperature, salinity, and depth influenced the RDIs in summer in these areas. Growth condition factor (GCF) in the two areas varied monthly and the croaker in the SYS grew more slowly than those in the ECS. This was likely due to the low bottom temperature of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in summer and autumn or to higher human fishing pressure in the ECS. To ensure sustainable utilization of the croaker stocks in these regions, we recommend reducing the fishing intensity, increasing the cod-end mesh size, and improving the protection of juveniles.  相似文献   
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