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1.
Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.  相似文献   
2.
针对现有的商业地理信息系统平台难以灵活整合多源影像数据融合使用的问题,深入研究Cesium平台下多种数据源的空间参考差异和瓦片组织规则,针对不同空间参考的瓦片数据源进行混搭设计,提出基于Cesium的多源本地瓦片数据静态和动态加载方案。实验结果表明,单一瓦片数据源加载方案、静态和动态多源瓦片混搭方案的展示效果较好;静态瓦片混搭方案在加载不同空间参考瓦片数据时容易造成变形;动态多源、多空间参考瓦片混搭方案能有效克服变形问题且展示效果佳。本文实现了在开源GIS平台下的多源影像数据的融合使用,为地理信息系统与遥感类项目应用提供了一个低成本、高灵活性的解决方案,具有较为明显的实际应用价值。  相似文献   
3.
以亚铁氰化钾为单源前驱体,以活性炭为载体,采用超声辅助均匀沉淀法,制备了普鲁士蓝/活性炭复合材料(PB/AC)。通过场发射扫描电子显微镜、X-射线衍射、X-射线光电子能谱和傅立叶变换红外光谱技术,对PB/AC的形貌、结构和组成进行了表征。结果表明:立方体结构的PB微晶均匀地分布在活性炭表面。研究考察了PB/AC对水溶液中铯离子(Cs~+)的吸附和脱附性能。在pH=7、45℃和180 min条件下,PB/AC对Cs~+的最大吸附量为49.17 mg/g;在pH=2、45℃和240 min条件下,Cs~+的脱附率可达88.5%。  相似文献   
4.
The present work are extract cesium (Cs+) and rubidium (Rb+) from the salt lake brine containing the potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+) after concentrated through evaporation. It has excellent effect of extraction that 4-sec-butyl-2-(α-methylbenzyl) phenol (t-BAMBP) was diluted in the Sulfonated Kerosene (SK). The infrared spectrum studies indicate that polymerize to form the dimer in the t-BAMBP when Cs+ or Rb+ were extracted. The effect of K+ and Mg2+, t-BAMBP concentration, the volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A) and the alkalinity(pH) of aqueous phase were investigated. The K+ and Mg2+ should be eliminated through precipitation before extraction and separation Cs+ and Rb+. The experimental brine was extracted of optimum conditions were using 0.8 mol/L t-BAMBP in SK, the pH exceed 13, and O/A of 1:1 for 2 min contact time under room temperature. The optimal extraction yields of Cs+ and Rb+ up to 100% and 85.8%, and 8.76% K+ was co-extracted. Further work target to increase theSextractionSyield and selectivity ofSRb+, and realize the efficient seperation of Cs+ and Rb+ products .  相似文献   
5.
This work shows the extraction of cesium( Cs~+) and rubidium( Rb~+) from salt lake brine containing potassium( K~+) and magnesium( Mg~(2+)). The results show that 4-tert-butyl-2-( α-methylbenzyl) phenol( t-BAMBP) diluted in sulfonated kerosene( SK) has an excellent extraction effect. Infrared spectroscopic studies indicate that polymerize to form the dimer in the t-BAMBP when Cs~+or Rb~+were extracted. The effects of K~+,Mg~(2+),t-BAMBP concentration,the volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase( O/A) and the alkalinity( pH) of aqueous phase were investigated.The K~+and Mg~(2+)should be eliminated through precipitating before the extraction and separation of Cs~+and Rb~+. The optimum extraction conditions of the experimental brine were as follows: 0. 8 mol/L t-BAMBP diluted in SK,pH≥13,a phase ratio of 1: 1,and an extraction contact time of 2 min at room temperature. The optimal extraction yields of Cs~+and Rb~+were as high as 100% and 85. 8%,in addition,8. 76% of K~+was co-extracted. Further work would increase the extraction yield and selectivity of Rb~+and realize the efficient separation of Cs~+and Rb~+from brine.  相似文献   
6.
To analyse suspended sediment sources in unmanaged Japanese cypress plantation watersheds, field measurements and fingerprinting of the suspended sediment was conducted in the Shimanto River basin in southern Japan. For sediment fingerprinting, 137Cs and 210Pbex were detected by means of gamma‐ray spectrometry in the surface soil of the forest floor, stream bank and truck trail and mobilized sediment by interrill erosion. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activities associated with the forest floor materials were considerably higher than those of the stream bank and truck trail. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activities associated with the suspended sediment were found to vary with the sampling period. Evidently, the suspended sediment can comprise materials generated from the forest floor by interrill erosion and those from the truck trail and/or stream bank. The multivariate sediment‐mixing model using 137Cs and 210Pbex showed that the contribution of the forest floor varied periodically, ranging from 23–56% in the Hinoki 156 subwatershed and from 18–85% in the Hinoki 155 subwatershed. The difference in the average contribution of the forest floor between Hinoki 156 (46%) and Hinoki 155 (69%) may relate to the presence of truck trail networks in the watershed. The truck trail network can play roles of sediment source and pathway for sediment from forest floor to stream channel due to the concentrated overland flow on the truck trail during heavy rainfall events. These results indicate that the forest floor should be recognized as a major source of suspended sediment in unmanaged Japanese cypress plantation watersheds. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
8.
铯作为一种化学性质活泼的碱金属,具有优异的光电性能,在催化、光电、磁流体发电和医药等很多领域应用广泛。本文使用t-BAMBP/磺化煤油体系对溶液中微量铯进行萃取,用盐酸进行反萃。主要考察了萃取剂浓度、O/A(萃取剂油相与溶液水相之比)、碱度、萃取时间、振荡强度、萃取温度、反萃酸的浓度和反萃时间等实验条件。发现最佳正萃条件为萃取剂浓度1 mol/L,O/A相比1∶1,碱度1 mol/L,萃取时间2 min,振荡强度200 r/min,萃取温度为20℃,反萃酸c(HCl)为0.1 mol/L,反萃时间t_2为3 min。  相似文献   
9.
Over the past 150 years, major land use changes have occurred in the Stemple Creek Watershed in northern California that have caused erosion to move soils from the upland to the flood plain, stream channels, and the bay. The purpose of this study is to document the recent (1954 to present) sediment deposition patterns in the flood plain area adjacent to Stemple Creek using the 137Cesium technique. Sediment deposition ranged from 0.26 to 1.84 cm year−1 for the period from 1964 to 2002 with an average of 0.85±0.41 cm year−1. Sediment deposition rates were higher for the 1954 to 1964 period with a range of 0.31–3.50 cm year−1 and an average of 1.29±1.04 cm year−1. These data indicate that sediment deposition in the flood plain has decreased since the middle 1950s, probably related to reduction in row crop agriculture and an increase in pasturelands. This study shows that the flood plains in the Stemple Creek Watershed are a significant sink for the soils being eroded from the upland area. Given the significance of the flood plain for trapping eroded materials before they reach the stream channels or the bay, efforts need to be made to manage these flood plain areas to insure that they do not change and become a source rather than a sink for eroded materials as improved management practices on the upland areas reduce sediment input to the flood plain.  相似文献   
10.
For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.  相似文献   
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