首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   1252篇
  免费   444篇
  国内免费   65篇
测绘学   3篇
大气科学   58篇
地球物理   371篇
地质学   973篇
海洋学   103篇
天文学   24篇
综合类   44篇
自然地理   185篇
  2023年   16篇
  2022年   37篇
  2021年   37篇
  2020年   43篇
  2019年   41篇
  2018年   37篇
  2017年   54篇
  2016年   44篇
  2015年   40篇
  2014年   59篇
  2013年   91篇
  2012年   72篇
  2011年   80篇
  2010年   44篇
  2009年   88篇
  2008年   104篇
  2007年   82篇
  2006年   107篇
  2005年   73篇
  2004年   68篇
  2003年   55篇
  2002年   73篇
  2001年   66篇
  2000年   47篇
  1999年   35篇
  1998年   31篇
  1997年   34篇
  1996年   26篇
  1995年   31篇
  1994年   27篇
  1993年   17篇
  1992年   16篇
  1991年   7篇
  1990年   13篇
  1989年   15篇
  1988年   12篇
  1987年   9篇
  1986年   6篇
  1985年   6篇
  1984年   6篇
  1983年   1篇
  1981年   2篇
  1979年   5篇
  1978年   3篇
  1977年   1篇
排序方式: 共有1761条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
The object of this study is to test the assumption that cryogenic weathering (here understood as in‐situ disintegration of rock under cold‐climate conditions including ice as a weathering agent) preferentially breaks up quartz grains. We apply the results of laboratory tests to a Quaternary sediment record. The combination of silt production, relative quartz enrichment in the silt fraction, and quartz grain micromorphology is traced in a multi‐100‐kyr lake sediment archive as indicator data for cryogenic weathering. Constant cryogenic weathering conditions are inferred for at least the last 220 000 years from a lake sediment core of El'gygytgyn Crater, northeast Russia. This is the longest continuous terrestrial archive currently known for the continental Arctic. Quartz enrichment in the fines evolves from seasonal freeze–thaw weathering as demonstrated in laboratory testing where over 100 freeze and thaw cycles crack quartz grains preferentially over feldspar. Microscopic grain features demonstrate that freeze–thaw cycling probably disrupts quartz grains along mineral impurities such as bubble trails, gas–liquid inclusions, or mineralogical sub‐grain boundaries. Single‐grain micromorphology (e.g. angular outlines, sharp edges, microcracks, brittle surfaces) illustrates how quartz becomes fragmented due to cryogenic cracking of the grains. The single‐grain features stemming from the weathering dynamics are preserved even after a grain is transported off site (i.e. in mobile slope material, in seasonal river run‐off, into a lake basin) and may serve as first‐order proxy data for permafrost conditions in Quaternary records.  相似文献   
2.
The way in which rocks and engineering materials heat‐up and dry‐out in the intertidal zone is of relevance to both weathering and ecology. These behaviours can be measured in the laboratory under controlled conditions designed to replicate those occurring in the field. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in thermal behaviours between rock types and through time as a result of soiling in terrestrial environments, but the influence of weathering and colonization on rock behaviours in the intertidal zone has not been previously assessed. We measured the warming and drying of blocks of rock (limestone and granite) and marine concrete during ‘low‐tide’ events simulated in the laboratory, before and after a period of exposure (eight months) on rock platforms in Cornwall, UK. As well as differences between the material types, temperatures of control (unexposed) and field‐exposed blocks differed in the order of 1 to 2 °C. Drying behaviours were also different after field exposure. Differences during the first few hours of exposure to air and heat were attributed to discolouration and albedo effects. Over longer periods of time, changes in the availability of near‐surface pore water as a result of micro‐scale bioerosion of limestone and the development of bio‐chemical crusts on marine concrete [observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] are suggested as mechanisms enhancing and reducing, respectively, the efficiency of evaporative cooling. The retention of moisture by epilithic biofilms may also influence thermal and drying behaviours of granite. These observations represent one of the first examples of cross‐scalar biogeomorphic linkages in the intertidal zone. The significance of the results for the subsequent efficiency of weathering, and near‐surface micro‐climatic conditions experienced by colonizing organisms is discussed. The involvement of microorganisms in the creation of more (or less) ecologically stressful conditions through the alteration of substratum geomorphic properties and behaviours is suggested as an example of ‘biogeomorphic ecosystem engineering’. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
4.
采用温湿度测试、石窟造像渗水实验、石窟造像吸水的红外成像、岩石特征分析等手段,对四川广元千佛崖石窟造像表面及其周围环境进行监测,以及对石窟造像岩石特征进行分析.结果表明:进深较大的窟室内外存在2℃~4℃的温差,岩石0~40 mm深度范围内温度与外界气温存在显著相关性;石窟造像岩石主要成分为长石、石英、黑云母及黏土矿物,...  相似文献   
5.
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of undisturbed drill cores of pelitic schist from a landslide area in Japan clarified the mechanisms of chemical weathering of pelitic schist. Oxidizing surface water percolates downward and reaches an oxidation front, where chlorite is altered to Al‐vermiculite, graphite and pyrite are oxidized and depleted, and goethite precipitates. Oxidation of pyrite also occurs just below the oxidation front, probably by ferric iron. Pyrite oxidation yields sulphuric acid, which penetrates further downward, interacting with and weakening the rocks. In addition to this chemical weakening, stress release and shearing along schistosities form an incipient shear zone, which propagates to a sliding zone that forms the rupture surface of a landslide. Once a sliding zone has developed, it inhibits downward groundwater flow across it because of its low permeability, slowing the downward propagation of the weathering zone until this filtration barrier is broken by landslide movement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
To describe temporal change in tafone development, an S‐shaped curve equation is proposed: Z = Zc [1 ? (n + 1) exp (? β t ) + n exp (? (1 + 1/n) β t )] , where Z is observed tafone depth, Zc is ultimate tafone depth, t is time, and n and β are constants. The applicability of this model is examined using tafone data selected from seven sites, which are categorized into three different salt‐weathering environments: a spray/splash‐dominant (occasionally wave‐affected) supra‐tidal zone, aerosol‐affected coastal regions, and inland desert areas. The results indicate that the equation can well describe tafone development in each of these environments. An investigation based on the values of n and β, determined through a best fit of the equation to the data, suggests that n characterizes site‐specific environmental conditions and β reflects the magnitude of factors controlling the recession mechanism of tafone surfaces. It is found that (1) the maximum rate of tafone growth dramatically decreases from supra‐tidal, through coastal, to desert environments, and (2) the growing mode of tafoni is different depending on the environmental settings. The erosional force to facilitate the development of tafoni at supra‐tidal sites is estimated to be about 400 times greater than that in the general coastal area. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
This study has focused on the processes of soil degradation and chemical element concentration in tea-growing regions of Rwanda, Africa. Soil degradation accelerated by erosion is caused not only by topography but also by human activities. This soil degradation involves both the physical loss and reduction in the amount of topsoil associated with nutrient decline. Soil samples were collected from eleven tropical zones in Rwanda and from variable depth within each collecting site. Of these, Samples from three locations in each zone were analyzed in the laboratory, with the result that the pH of all soil samples is shown to be less than 5 (pH < 5) with a general average of 4.4. The elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) are present in high concentration levels. In contrast calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) are present at low-level concentrations and carbon (C) was found in minimal concentrations. In addition, elements derived from fertilizers, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) which is also from minerals such as feldspar, are also present in low-level concentrations. The results indicate that the soil in certain Rwandan tea plantations is acidic and that this level of pH may help explain, in addition to natural factors, the deficiency of some elements such as Ca, Mg, P and N. The use of chemical fertilizers, land use system and the location of fields relative to household plots are also considered to help explain why tea plantation soils are typically degraded.  相似文献   
8.
侯连华 《地质学报》2011,85(4):557-568
针对火山岩风化壳储层控制因素和成因复杂的难题,以三塘湖盆地石炭系卡拉岗组为例,在搞清晚石炭世构造环境和岩性特征基础上,提出风化淋滤和断裂改造是火山岩风化壳形成有利储层的主要控制因素.不同火山岩岩性经风化淋滤后储层物性均增大并能形成有利储层,储集层孔隙类型以次生溶蚀孔隙和裂缝为主,具双峰分布特征.建立了5层结构模型,并提...  相似文献   
9.
对辽宁农村代表区域站点--辽中县马龙村观测站2007年2月至2008年1月酸雨、气态污染物浓度观测资料进行了研究.结果表明:辽中站降水的化学组成阴离子主要为SO24-和NO-3,阳离子主要为NH+4和Ca2+,SO-3/NO-3比值为2.9,Na+/C1-比值较大,大于1.各种离子浓度冬春季高,夏秋季较低,表明研究区域...  相似文献   
10.
释放化学物质耗空电离层电子密度的研究   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
电离层作为电波传播的主要通道和载体,影响着无线电通信的质量,因此人工电离层扰动具有广阔的应用前景,在电离层中释放具有较强电子亲和力的化学物质可以耗空电离层F区的电子密度,是人工电离层扰动的有效手段之一.本文通过对CO2和SF6气体在电离层中的扩散和离子化学反应过程的分析,理论计算了在我国北京地区上空释放这两种气体后电离...  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号