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1.
Interplay of S and As in Mekong Delta sediments during redox oscillations   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
The cumulative effects of periodic redox cycling on the mobility of As,Fe,and S from alluvial sediment to groundwater were investigated in bioreactor experiments.Two particular sediments from the alluvial floodplain of the Mekong Delta River were investigated:Matrix A(14 m deep)had a higher pyrite concentration than matrix B(7 m deep)sediments.Gypsum was present in matrix B but absent in matrix A.In the reactors,the sediment suspensions were supplemented with As(Ⅲ)and SO_4~(2-),and were subjected to three full-redox cycles entailing phases of nitrogen/CO_2,compressed air sparging,and cellobiose addition.Major differences in As concentration and speciation were observed upon redox cycling.Evidences support the fact that initial sediment composition is the main factor controlling arsenic release and its speciation during the redox cycles.Indeed,a high pyrite content associated with a low SO_4~(2-)content resulted in an increase in dissolved As concentrations,mainly in the form of As(Ⅲ),after anoxic half-cycles;whereas a decrease in As concentrations mainly in the form of As(Ⅴ),was instead observed after oxic half-cycles.In addition,oxic conditions were found to be responsible for pyrite and arsenian pyrite oxidation,increasing the As pool available for mobilization.The same processes seem to occur in sediment with the presence of gypsum,but,in this case,dissolved As were sequestered by biotic or abiotic redox reactions occurring in the Fe—S system,and by specific physico-chemical condition(e.g.pH).The contrasting results obtained for two sediments sampled from the same core show that many complexes and entangled factors are at work,and further refinement is needed to explain the spatial and temporal variability of As release to groundwater of the Mekong River Delta(Vietnam).  相似文献   
2.
The role of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate on the genesis of minor amounts of pyrite associated with gypsum in an otherwise predominantly evaporitic sequence was studied in geological and geochemical terms. The potential association between landfill leachate and the conditions required for bacterial reduction of sulfate and fixation of H2S as pyrite were examined. The lithological column was generally found to contain little or no Fe. The δ34S values for sulfates were consistent with previously reported data; however, the measured δ18O values were slightly higher. Sulfides disseminated in the marl/lutite exhibited higher δ34S values (≈−8‰) than gypsum-coating pyrite crystals (δ34S < −30‰). Dissolution of gypsum to sulfate and the supply of metabolizable organic matter and Fe required for H2S fixation as sulfides may have originated from landfill leachate. Intermittent availability of leachate, a result of the precipitation regime, can facilitate sulfur disproportionation and lead to fractionations as high as   相似文献   
3.
该文论述了小屯石膏矿的地层、岩石和构造等矿区地质特征、矿床地质特征和矿石质量,对矿床成因进行了分析。小屯石膏矿是山东省首次在奥陶纪东黄山段地层中发现的具有工业开采价值和经过详查的小型石膏矿床。该矿床的发现突破了以往的地质认识,拓宽了寻找石膏矿的领域,对以后寻找同类型的石膏矿床具有一定的借鉴意义。  相似文献   
4.
发生于2006年9月11日的南京石膏矿特大突水灾害不仅改变了矿区及外围的地下水流场, 并引发了矿区地面沉降变形, 对地表附属物产生了一定的破坏作用, 造成了包括矿山关闭在内的巨大财产损失。南京石膏矿涉及典型的深部矿山地质工程问题, 影响地下开采稳定、矿山灾害和环境问题的主要因素是矿体及围岩的岩性结构及岩体结构构造, 特别是断裂构造及其影响带裂隙发育情况、富水性、导水率。围岩的岩溶强烈富水带的存在是矿坑突水的直接水源; 矿体的软岩特性、矿山开采扰动使采场周围的应力场重新分布、开采对断裂构造及裂隙带等结构体的活化作用都加剧了突水灾害的发生。  相似文献   
5.
汶口盆地石膏矿资源储量丰富,吴家新庄矿段为其中少有的开发有利地段。该矿床赋存于古近纪官庄群汶口组第二岩性段中,矿层倾角一般1°~9°,为简单的单斜构造,矿层厚1.86~53.36m,矿段CaSO4·H2O+CaSO4平均品位69.90%,自然品级以三、四级为主。该文从构造、古地理、古气候、物理化学及成矿物质来源4个方面探讨石膏矿床成因,并总结该矿床成因以陆源湖相沉积为主,经后生脱水、水化、交代等多种地质作用形成。  相似文献   
6.
7.
囊谦盆地晚始新世贡觉组厚层红色含膏盐粉砂质泥岩是研究青藏高原始新世古气候演化和含膏盐沉积环境的良好素材。采集囊谦盆地贡觉组约257 m含膏盐地层的碎屑沉积物,研究其粘土矿物成分和组合特征及气候与沉积环境变化。结果显示,粘土矿物主要以伊利石(52.1%)为主,其次为绿泥石(8.1%)和高岭石(3.5%)。根据岩性特征及粘土矿物组合变化,剖面自下而上可划分为3个阶段,分别指示了暖湿—低盐度、冷干—高盐度、较暖湿—低盐度的气候和沉积环境。贡觉组气候与沉积环境受到青藏高原地区干湿交替变化大背景的影响。  相似文献   
8.
This outcrop-based study reports diffuse joints and veins, normal to strike-slip fault zones and minor folds that developed, from Miocene to Quaternary, within the clastic to siliceous sedimentary record of the forearc Pisco Basin of southern Peru. Patterns, orientations, dimensional parameters and other outcrop-scale characteristics of the various deformation features are illustrated and their genetic mechanisms and timing of development are inferred. These new structural data and interpretations allow a better constraint of the structural style and evolution of the Pisco Basin, and can represent useful guidelines for characterizing the outcrop-scale deformation affecting similar forearc basins along the Peruvian coast.Major results of this study are that the development of the documented deformation features, their patterns, dimensional parameters and kinematics seem influenced by local perturbations of the paleostress field by mechanic processes partly independent of plate tectonics forces. These processes include strain localization on both pre-existing and progressively forming new structural discontinuities, and cyclic switches of the horizontal, principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. In particular, we discuss how different normal fault patterns, from sub-parallel to multidirectional/polygonal, could form in a same deformation phase in response of the local σ2/σ3 magnitude ratio, as an evolution of stratabound, mutually orthogonal vein sets.  相似文献   
9.
Gypsum is a highly soluble rock and is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are also present in limestones and dolomites. Gypsum karst is widespread in the USA and has caused problems at several sites where dams were built, or where dam construction was considered. Gypsum karst is present (at least locally) in most areas where gypsum crops out, or is less than 30–60 m below the land surface. These karst features can compromise on the ability of a dam to hold water in a reservoir, and can even cause collapse of a dam. Gypsum karst in the abutments or foundation of a dam can allow water to pass through, around, or under a dam, and solution channels can enlarge quickly, once water starts flowing through such a karst system. The common procedure for controlling gypsum karst beneath the dam is a deep cut-off trench, backfilled with impermeable material, or a close-spaced grout curtain that hopefully will fill all cavities. In Oklahoma, the proposed Upper Mangum Dam was abandoned before construction, because of extensive gypsum karst in the abutments and impoundment area. Catastrophic failure of the Quail Creek Dike in southwest Utah in 1989 was due to flow of water through an undetected karstified gypsum unit beneath the earth-fill embankment. The dike was rebuilt, at a cost of US $12 million, with construction of a cut-off trench 600 m long and 25 m deep. Other dams in the USA with severe gypsum-karst leakage problems in recent years are Horsetooth and Carter Lake Dams, in Colorado, and Anchor Dam, in Wyoming.  相似文献   
10.
Evaporites, including rock salt (halite) and gypsum (or anhydrite), are the most soluble among common rocks; they dissolve readily to form the same types of karst features that commonly are found in limestones and dolomites. Evaporites are present in 32 of the 48 contiguous states in USA, and they underlie about 40% of the land area. Typical evaporite-karst features observed in outcrops include sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs, whereas other evidence of active evaporite karst includes surface-collapse structures and saline springs or saline plumes that result from salt dissolution. Many evaporites also contain evidence of paleokarst, such as dissolution breccias, breccia pipes, slumped beds, and collapse structures. All these natural karst phenomena can be sources of engineering or environmental problems. Dangerous sinkholes and caves can form rapidly in evaporite rocks, or pre-existing karst features can be reactivated and open up (collapse) under certain hydrologic conditions or when the land is put to new uses. Many karst features also propagate upward through overlying surficial deposits. Human activities also have caused development of evaporite karst, primarily in salt deposits. Boreholes (petroleum tests or solution-mining operations) or underground mines may enable unsaturated water to flow through or against salt deposits, either intentionally or accidentally, thus allowing development of small to large dissolution cavities. If the dissolution cavity is large enough and shallow enough, successive roof failures can cause land subsidence and/or catastrophic collapse. Evaporite karst, natural and human-induced, is far more prevalent than is commonly believed.  相似文献   
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