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1.
李锰  杨峰  胡伟华 《地震》2011,31(2):129-136
为解释实际观测资料震源破裂过程与自相似(分形)模型的不一致性,本文基于观测结果,构建了由81×81个细胞单元组成二维非均匀断层模型,并通过设计的细胞自动机模拟程序进行了模拟试验.研究结果表明:断层结构非均匀性是影响孕震过程特征的重要因素,而且地震强度分布并非简单的自相似.随着断层非匀质性增加,破裂过程出现由相对的脆性破...  相似文献   
2.
A well-controlled 3-D experiment with pre-defined block heterogeneities is conducted, where neutron tomography is used to map 3-D water distribution after two successive drainage steps. The material and hydraulic properties of the two sands are first measured in the laboratory with multistep outflow experiments. Additionally, the pore structure of the sands is acquired by means of image analysis of synchrotron tomography data and the structure is used for pore-scale simulation of one- and two-phase flow with Lattice-Boltzmann methods. This gives us another set of material and hydraulic parameters of the sands. The two sets of hydraulic properties (from the lab scale and from the pore scale) are then used in numerical simulations of the 3-D experiment.  相似文献   
3.
We propose a new single-phase local upscaling method that uses spatially varying multipoint transmissibility calculations. The method is demonstrated on two-dimensional Cartesian and adaptive Cartesian grids. For each cell face in the coarse upscaled grid, we create a local fine grid region surrounding the face on which we solve two generic local flow problems. The multipoint stencils used to calculate the fluxes across coarse grid cell faces involve the six neighboring pressure values. They are required to honor the two generic flow problems. The remaining degrees of freedom are used to maximize compactness and to ensure that the flux approximation is as close as possible to being two-point. The resulting multipoint flux approximations are spatially varying (a subset of the six neighbors is adaptively chosen) and reduce to two-point expressions in cases without full-tensor anisotropy. Numerical tests show that the method significantly improves upscaling accuracy as compared to commonly used local methods and also compares favorably with a local–global upscaling method.  相似文献   
4.
We propose a methodology, called multilevel local–global (MLLG) upscaling, for generating accurate upscaled models of permeabilities or transmissibilities for flow simulation on adapted grids in heterogeneous subsurface formations. The method generates an initial adapted grid based on the given fine-scale reservoir heterogeneity and potential flow paths. It then applies local–global (LG) upscaling for permeability or transmissibility [7], along with adaptivity, in an iterative manner. In each iteration of MLLG, the grid can be adapted where needed to reduce flow solver and upscaling errors. The adaptivity is controlled with a flow-based indicator. The iterative process is continued until consistency between the global solve on the adapted grid and the local solves is obtained. While each application of LG upscaling is also an iterative process, this inner iteration generally takes only one or two iterations to converge. Furthermore, the number of outer iterations is bounded above, and hence, the computational costs of this approach are low. We design a new flow-based weighting of transmissibility values in LG upscaling that significantly improves the accuracy of LG and MLLG over traditional local transmissibility calculations. For highly heterogeneous (e.g., channelized) systems, the integration of grid adaptivity and LG upscaling is shown to consistently provide more accurate coarse-scale models for global flow, relative to reference fine-scale results, than do existing upscaling techniques applied to uniform grids of similar densities. Another attractive property of the integration of upscaling and adaptivity is that process dependency is strongly reduced, that is, the approach computes accurate global flow results also for flows driven by boundary conditions different from the generic boundary conditions used to compute the upscaled parameters. The method is demonstrated on Cartesian cell-based anisotropic refinement (CCAR) grids, but it can be applied to other adaptation strategies for structured grids and extended to unstructured grids.  相似文献   
5.
An iterative inverse method, the sequential self-calibration method, is developed for mapping spatial distribution of a hydraulic conductivity field by conditioning on nonreactive tracer breakthrough curves. A streamline-based, semi-analytical simulator is adopted to simulate solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. The simulation is used as the forward modeling step. In this study, the hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be a deterministic or random variable. Within the framework of the streamline-based simulator, the efficient semi-analytical method is used to calculate sensitivity coefficients of the solute concentration with respect to the hydraulic conductivity variation. The calculated sensitivities account for spatial correlations between the solute concentration and parameters. The performance of the inverse method is assessed by two synthetic tracer tests conducted in an aquifer with a distinct spatial pattern of heterogeneity. The study results indicate that the developed iterative inverse method is able to identify and reproduce the large-scale heterogeneity pattern of the aquifer given appropriate observation wells in these synthetic cases.  相似文献   
6.
Advances in photogrammetry have eased the acquisition of high-resolution digital information from outcrops, enabling faster, non-destructive data capturing and improved reservoir modeling. Geocellular models for flow dynamics with in the virtual outcrop in siliciclastic deposits at different sets of sandstone facies architecture remain, however, a challenge. Digital maps of bedding, lithological contrast, spatial-temporal variations of bedding and permeability characteristics make it more easy to understand flow tortuosity in a particular architecture. An ability to precisely model these properties can improve reservoir characterization and flow modeling at different scales. Here we demonstrate the construction of realistic 2 D sandstone facies based models for a pragmatic simulation of flow dynamics using a combination of digital point clouds dataset acquired from LiDAR and field investigation of the Sandakan Formation, Sabah, Borneo.Additionally, we present methods for enhancing the accuracy of outcrop digital datasets for producing high resolution flow simulation. A well-exposed outcrop from the Sandakan Formation, Sabah, northwest Borneo having a lateral extent of 750 m was chosen in order to implement our research approach. Sandstone facies and its connectivity are well constrained by outcrop observations, data from air-permeability measurements, bilinear interpolation of permeability, grid construction and water vector analysis for flow dynamics.These proportions were then enumerated in terms of static digital outcrop model(DOM) and facies model based on sandstone facies bedding characteristics. Flow simulation of water vector analysis through each of the four sandstone facies types show persistent spatial correlation of permeability that align with either cross-bedded orientation or straight with more dispersion high quality sandstone(porosity 21.25%-41.2%and permeability 1265.20-5986.25 mD) and moderate quality sandstone(porosity 10.44%-28.75% and permeability 21.44-1023.33 mD). Whereas, in more heterolithic sandstone(wavy-to flaser-bedded and bioturbated sandstone), lateral variations in permeability show spatially non-correlated patterns over centimeters to tens of meters with mostly of low quality sandstone(porosity 3.4%-12.31% and permeability 1 mD to 3.21 mD). These variations reflect the lateral juxtaposition in flow dynamics. It has also been resulted that the vertical connectivity and heterogeneities in terms of flow are mostly pragmatic due to the interconnected sandstone rather than the quality of sandstone.  相似文献   
7.
Finding generic trends in mechanical and physical rock properties will help to make predictions of the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales. Understanding the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales is important for the successful development of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs.This paper presents the effect of heterogeneities in mineralogy and petrophysical properties on the validity of generic trends on multiple scales in rock-mechanical and rock-physical properties of the Whitby Mudstone. Rock-mechanical laboratory experiments have been performed on Whitby Mudstone samples from multiple outcrops within five kilometres laterally in order to investigate the heterogeneity and possible trends on an outcrop scale. Unconfined compression tests and acoustic measurements have been conducted to obtain the rock-mechanical properties, including rock strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and velocity anisotropy. The rock-physical properties, including mineralogy, porosity, and matrix density, were measured using X-ray fluorescence and helium pycnometry. Various methodologies have been applied to the resultant data in order to derive different brittleness indices.Significant heterogeneity in rock-mechanical and rock-physical properties is present on an outcrop scale. There is no obvious correlation between mineral content and rock-mechanical properties on an outcrop scale in the Whitby Mudstone. Comparison with shales from different basins show, however, correlations between composition and elastic properties. The presence of significant heterogeneities on an outcrop scale and between shales from different basins make it difficult to find generic trends in rock-physical and rock-mechanical properties.  相似文献   
8.
The role of surface heterogeneity in modelling the stable boundary layer   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
High-resolution numerical simulations are performed for three nights for each of two areas of the United Kingdom. Area-averaging techniques are then used to calculate effective stability functions for turbulence parametrizations in models using typical mesoscale and global spatial resolutions. Comparisons are made with parametrizations commonly used in numerical weather prediction models. The present results do not suggest that significant enhancement of the stability functions above 50 m is justified. Closer to the surface, more significant enhancement is observed in some regions. It is shown that the amount of enhancement is related to the variability of the orography.  相似文献   
9.
Facies reconstructions are used in hydrogeology to improve the interpretation of aquifer permeability distribution. In the absence of sufficient data to define the heterogeneity due to geological processes, uncertainties in the distribution of aquifer hydrofacies and characteristics may appear. Geometric and geostatistical methods are used to understand and model aquifer hydrofacies distribution, providing models to improve comprehension and development of aquifers. However, these models require some input statistical parameters that can be difficult to infer from the study site. A three-dimensional reconstruction of a kilometer scale fine-grain dominated Cenozoic alluvial fan derived from more than 200 continuously cored, closely spaced, and regularly distributed wells is presented. The facies distributions were reconstructed using a genetic stratigraphic subdivision and a deterministic geostatistical algorithm. The reconstruction is only slightly affected by variations in the geostatistical input parameters because of the high-density data set. Analysis of the reconstruction allowed identification in the proximal to medial alluvial fan zones of several laterally extensive sand bodies with relatively higher permeability; these sand bodies were quantified in terms of volume, mean thickness, maximum area, and maximum equivalent diameter. These quantifications provide trends and geological scenarios for input statistical parameters to model aquifer systems in similar alluvial fan depositional settings.  相似文献   
10.
Numerical modeling of nonlinear water waves over heterogeneous porous beds   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Eric C. Cruz  Qin Chen   《Ocean Engineering》2007,34(8-9):1303-1321
The transformation of nonlinear water waves over porous beds is studied by applying a numerical model based on Chen's [2006. Fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type equations for waves and currents over porous beds. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 132:2, 220–230] Boussinesq-type equations for highly nonlinear waves on permeable beds. The numerical model uses a high-order time-marching solution and fourth-order finite-difference schemes for discretization of first-order spatial derivatives to obtain a computational accuracy consistent with the model equations. By forcing the wave celerity and spatial porous-damping rate of the linearized model to match the exact linear theory for horizontal porous bed over a prescribed range of relative depths, the values of the model parameters are optimally determined. Numerical simulations of the damped wave propagation over finite-thickness porous layer demonstrate the accuracy of both the numerical model and governing equations, which have been shown by prior theoretical analyses to be accurate for both nominal and thick porous layers. These simulations also elucidate on the significance of the higher-order porous-damping terms and the influence of the hydraulic parameters. Application of the model to the simulation of the wave field around a laboratory-scale submerged porous mound provides a measure of its capability, as well as useful insight into the scaling of the porous-resistance coefficients. For application to heterogeneous porous beds, the assumption of weak spatial variation of the porous resistance is examined using truncated forms of the governing equations. The results indicate that the complete set of Boussinesq-type equations is applicable to porous beds of nonhomogeneous makeup.  相似文献   
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