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1.
The Krishni–Yamuna interstream area is a micro-watershed in the Central Ganga Plain and a highly fertile track of Western Uttar Pradesh. The Sugarcane and wheat are the major crops of the area. Aquifers of Quaternary age form the major source of Irrigation and municipal water supplies. A detailed hydrogeological investigation was carried out in the study area with an objective to assess aquifer framework, groundwater quality and its resource potential. The hydrogeological cross section reveals occurrence of alternate layers of clay and sand. Aquifer broadly behaves as a single bodied aquifer down to the depth of 100 m bgl (metre below ground level) as the clay layers laterally pinch out. The depth to water in the area varies between 5 and 16.5 m bgl. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW with few local variations. An attempt has been made to evaluate groundwater resources of the area. The water budget method focuses on the various components contributing to groundwater flow and groundwater storage changes. Changes in ground water storage can be attributed to rainfall recharge, irrigation return flow and ground water inflow to the basin minus baseflow (ground water discharge to streams or springs), evapotranspiration from ground water, pumping and ground water outflow from the basin. The recharge is obtained in the study area using Water table fluctuation and Tritium methods. The results of water balance study show that the total recharge in to the interstream region is of the order of 185.25 million m3 and discharge from the study area is of the order of 203.24 million m3, leaving a deficit balance of −17.99 million m3. Therefore, the present status of groundwater development in the present study area has acquired the declining trend. Thus, the hydrogeological analysis and water balance studies shows that the groundwater development has attained a critical state in the region.  相似文献   
2.
This study used optical brighteners (OB) released from septic systems to show that groundwater flow direction is largely controlled by the structural framework in a faulted karst groundwater system. Effective protection of groundwater resources requires that groundwater systems are adequately characterized and source water protection areas (SWPA) are developed for drinking water wells. Karst aquifers are among the most sensitive to contamination due to high recharge rates, and among the most difficult aquifers to characterize due to heterogeneity, and anisotropy. Because septic systems may be used to treat wastewater within SWPAs for karst aquifers there is a need to characterize these groundwater systems using tracers. The objective of this study was to characterize groundwater flow in a faulted portion of the Edwards aquifer in Bexar County, Texas using OB that are released as incidental tracers from septic systems. This study included measurement of water levels, sampling of groundwater and surface water, analysis for OB, and spatial analysis in a GIS. Results show that OB intensities were highest to the southwest of the septic area, a direction that is sub-parallel to the fault and fracture orientation and nearly perpendicular to the hydraulic gradient. This indicates that movement of OB, solutes, or non-aqueous liquids/solids in a faulted karst system can be largely controlled by fault/fracture orientation and structural relay ramps.  相似文献   
3.
The currently inactive deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) Sagspitz in Tyrol, Austria, covers an area of 3 km2 and originated along a glacially over-steepened slope composed mainly of phyllites belonging to the Innsbruck Quartzphyllite Complex. Past mass movement processes caused the formation of fracture systems and slump bodies which consequently form the aquifers of relatively large springs in a rock type with generally very low permeability and poor porosity. Analysis of water chemistry, oxygen isotope, and field parameters of the springs emerging from the DGSD imply that multilevel aquifers exist and enabled the detection of continuous deep flow paths through the entire length of the mass movement from the main scarp to the toe of the slope. It is shown that the aquifer boundaries and spring emergences throughout the loosened rock mass can be correlated to the internal and basal shear zones of the DGSD so that this hydrogeological approach proved to be useful for evaluating the mass movement structure.  相似文献   
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现代城市中景观湖建设日益增多,尤其北方各大城市已建或在建橡胶坝工程较多,由此引起的湖区水文地质条件危害问题也日益突出。工程应用中多采用水位外推延伸法来对其危害进行估算。根据蓄水后沿岸水文地质条件,采用数学建模方法进行预测评价,通过对湖区相对隔水层的确定、水文地质条件模型的建立等步骤,最后得出湖区浸没危害的预测评价结果。  相似文献   
6.
This work demonstrates how available knowledge can be used to build more transparent and refutable computer models of groundwater systems. The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, which surrounds a proposed site for a high level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, is used to explore model adequacy, identify parameters important to (and informed by) observations, and identify existing old and potential new observations important to predictions. Model development is pursued using a set of fundamental questions addressed with carefully designed metrics. Critical methods include using a hydrogeologic model, managing model nonlinearity by designing models that are robust while maintaining realism, using error-based weighting to combine disparate types of data, and identifying important and unimportant parameters and observations and optimizing parameter values with computationally frugal schemes. The frugal schemes employed in this study require relatively few (10–1000 s), parallelizable model runs. This is beneficial because models able to approximate the complex site geology defensibly tend to have high computational cost. The issue of model defensibility is particularly important given the contentious political issues involved.  相似文献   
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Multi-electrode geo-electrical and transient electromagnetic surveys were carried out to characterize the nature of the subsurface infiltration zones (5 to 20 m) related to a series of groundwater outlets, and to reveal the geometry of the different aquifers at Bani-Naim, in the south-eastern foothills of the Hebron area, West Bank, Palestine. The purpose of the surveys was to understand the link between water storage/transfer and the characteristics of the geological formations. The strata in this semi-arid region are composed of alternate layers of chalky limestone, hard limestone, marl and chalk. A total of 30 ERT and 15 TDEM were conducted at Bani Naim-Jahir and Bani Naim-Birein. A correlation between the results indicates various infiltration pathways: fractures, feature heterogeneities, and porous chalk. The local heterogeneity on the eastern side were the major pathways for the water infiltration, whereas the thick marl layer underneath acts as a natural impermeable barrier preventing water from infiltrating deeper. A combination of the different geophysical results identified conductive features that correspond to the infiltration zones supplying the dug wells with water. Furthermore, it was established that the fractured chalk and porous chalky limestone act as an aquifer. A three-dimensional visualization of the resistivity allowed a useful reconstruction of the shallow hydrogeological system. Consequently, these studies contribute to regional sustainable development projects in this semi-arid region.  相似文献   
9.
The Cretaceous age Chalk of south east England forms an important aquifer. Within chalk the storage and transmission of groundwater is enhanced by subsurface karstic weathering. The case study presented in this paper demonstrates that current approaches to assessing groundwater vulnerability to pollution and delineating source protection zones are flawed, as they do not take proper account of the karstic nature of chalk.Improved techniques, based on understanding the geological and geomorphological controls of karst development in chalk, are proposed to overcome the shortcomings of published groundwater vulnerability maps. The results also demonstrate the inadequacies of current groundwater modelling approaches for defining source protection zones. The techniques follow European Commission research recommendations by taking account of recharge, presence of overlying cover deposits, the nature of chalk karst and the way in which it influences the flow of groundwater. The approach described allows for better informed decisions to be made about chalk aquifer management to ensure adequate protection and conservation of groundwater. For example, the published groundwater vulnerability map shows Lambeth Group deposits classified as being a minor aquifer of low groundwater vulnerability in the chosen study area. However, by applying the new techniques, they are classified as having an Aquifer Vulnerability Rating of moderate to very high, when taking the karstic development of the underlying chalk into account.  相似文献   
10.
上海深部硬土渗透特性试验研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
上海深部硬土层的沉降显著滞后于水位变化, 本文通过一系列渗透试验进行了相关问题的研究, 包括初始水力坡度, 结核对渗透性的影响, 压力对渗透性的作用, 以及孔隙比与渗透系数之间规律的研究。结果表明硬土的渗透速率与水力坡度之间符合良好的线性关系, 满足达西定律; 大量的致密结核对渗透性影响微弱; 应力增加导致渗透性降低, 渗透系数与孔隙比呈指数规律变化。基于试验成果评价了1989~2007年天然硬土的渗透性变化, 此期间硬土层边界水位下降了近30m, 硬土层的沉降造成了该层渗透性的降低, 但土层的平均渗透系数改变不大。  相似文献   
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