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1.
Effective management of marine ecosystems is enhanced when detailed information on biodiversity is available. Key information to underpin management actions and conservation planning includes relationships between species assemblages and environmental gradients, and information on species distributions. We conducted a subtidal biodiversity assessment of surface‐dwelling subtidal molluscs in eight a priori defined habitat types using underwater visual censuses to quantitatively explore relationships between molluscan assemblages, and their correlation with benthic habitats and abiotic variables. In addition, variations in diversity were examined for two key habitat types (areas dominated by Dendronephthya australis and by filter feeders) over a period of 15 months to examine temporal change. We found that molluscs form distinct assemblages within subtidal habitats, but that assemblages within key habitats show inherent temporal variability. Regional (gamma) diversity of molluscs was found to result from a combination of: (i) within habitat alpha diversity, which increased with habitat complexity; (ii) between habitat beta diversity, with significant differences in molluscan assemblages amongst habitats with differing benthic growth, substrate type, and depth; and (iii) temporal beta diversity, with significant changes detected in molluscan assemblages over time. The results demonstrate how habitats and abiotic variables (principally depth and substrate type) combine to contribute to molluscan biodiversity in temperate estuaries, and illustrate the value of these factors as surrogates for surface‐dwelling subtidal molluscs in conservation planning.  相似文献   
2.
北美五大湖区的安大略湖北岸Don Valley Brickyard、Scarborough Bluffs、Bowmanville Bluffs 剖面共同构成了北美东北部最长也是最厚的陆地第四纪沉积记录,较完整地记录了晚更新世劳伦泰德冰盖(the Laurentide Ice Sheet)的演化.晚更新世劳伦泰德冰盖演化的重建有赖于这些经典剖面中重要沉积地层单元的准确年代学控制.传统的地层年代学主要是依靠少量14C年代,将主要的混杂堆积单元(diamicton)解释为气候变冷环境下的冰川扩张,并与指示全球冰量变化的深海氧同位素曲线一一比对建立起来的.这样建立起来的年代学存在很大的不确定性.20世纪80-90年代的少量热释光年代也不相吻合,最近的13个长石红外释光定年则只集中于Bowmanville Bluffs的一个分层,并未建立整个剖面的地层年代学,使这些经典沉积剖面的年代学一直没有得到系统的建立.应用石英光释光SAR-SGC法测试了Bowmanville Bluffs剖面Glaciofluvial Sand单元的2个冰水沉积样品,年代结果分别为(41.6±3.8) ka、(48.1±4.4)ka,分析表明这一年代结果偏老,石英颗粒可能晒褪不完全.由于大测片无法识别晒褪不完全的颗粒,因此,测试更多的剖面序列的光释光年代并尝试采用粗颗粒小测片或单颗粒技术解决样品颗粒晒褪不完全的问题将是必要的.  相似文献   
3.
The lake monitoring programme compliant with the Water Framework Directive has been implemented in Poland since 2007. Currently, the methods for three biological quality elements (BQEs): phytoplankton (the Phytoplankton Multimetric for Polish Lakes, PMPL), macrophytes (the Ecological State Macrophyte Index, ESMI) and phytobenthos (the Diatom Index for Lakes, IOJ) are officially applied and internationally intercalibrated. Based on the monitoring data from 256 lakes surveyed in 2010–2013 and assessed for all the three BQEs, we tested whether the assessment results obtained by the three biological methods were consistent and we searched for the causes of inconsistencies which we found. The lake classifications obtained from the PMPL and ESMI were highly consistent and the relationship between these metrics was relatively strong (R = 0.66, p < 0.001). Both metrics correlated equally strongly with water quality indicators. However, the PMPL and ESMI indicated systematic dissimilarities in the sensitivity to eutrophication between shallow and deep lakes. In shallow lakes, the alarming symptoms of macrophyte community deterioration (lower values of ESMI) occurred at lower nutrient and Chla concentrations and were accompanied by a better status of phytoplankton (higher values of PMPL) than in deep lakes that can be explained by a synergistic effect of inorganic suspended solids and algal growth on water transparency. As a consequence, the positions of phytoplankton and macrophytes as early warning indicators in the eutrophication gradient in shallow lakes were inverted compared to those in deep lakes. Compared to the PMPL and ESMI, the IOJ method gave the least stringent assessment results, with 22% of lakes failing to meet the environmental objectives. The relationships between IOJ and PMPL, and ESMI were relatively weak (R = 0.17, p = 0.008 and R = 0.17, p = 0.007, respectively). Moreover, the phytobenthos index IOJ correlated significantly more weakly with all the water quality indicators than either PMPL or ESMI did. The poor performance of the phytobenthos method in this study may suggest a limited indicator value of this BQE for lake assessment or inappropriate sampling design.  相似文献   
4.
We investigated the frequency domain relationships between four atmospheric teleconnections (Trans-Niño Index TNI, Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDO, Northern Annular Mode/Arctic Oscillation Index NAM/AO, and Pacific/North American PNA pattern) and water levels in the Great Lakes from 1948 to 2002 by quantifying the coherence between these time series. The levels in all Great Lakes are significantly correlated with the TNI in the frequency range (3–7)−1 cycles year−1, and with the PDO in interdecadal frequencies. The levels in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Erie are significantly correlated with the PNA pattern in interdecadal frequencies, and the levels in all Great Lakes are significantly correlated with the NAM/AO in interannual frequencies.  相似文献   
5.
Reconstructing climate from lake sediments can be challenging, because the response of lakes and various components of lake systems are mediated by non-climatic factors, such as geomorphic and hydrologic stetting. As a result, the magnitude of lake response to climatic forcing may be non-linear. In addition, changes in the lake system associated with the aging process or non-climatic influences may alter the response to a given climate perturbation. These non-linear and non-stationary characteristics can produce spatial heterogeneity in the pattern and timing of inferred change. One approach for generating regionally robust climatic interpretations from lakes is to increase coordinated efforts to generate and synthesize large data sets, so that localized influences can be more clearly distinguished from broad-scale regional patterns. This approach will be most successful for evaluating climate variation at multi-decadal or longer temporal scales; the climatic interpretation of higher frequency limnological variation can be more complicated, because of dating uncertainties and differential response times of individual proxies and systems. This paper is based on a plenary talk at the 10th International Paleolimnology Conference in Duluth, Minnesota in July 2006.  相似文献   
6.
The Ponto–Caspian amphipod Pontogammarus robustoides was introduced into Lithuanian inland waters more than 50 years ago and is now among the most successful local crustacean invaders. Existing as an oxyphilic species in its native range, in Lithuania it managed to establish in some lentic eutrophic waters facing long-term hypoxic conditions under winter ice cover, or shorter periods of hypoxia during the warm season. Recently, it has been observed to be further expanding in such waters. The aim of this study was to explore the possible divergence in anaerobic metabolism among introduced populations facing different selective pressures. A closed-bottle experiment was conducted using individuals from three Lithuanian lentic water bodies of different trophic status: mesotrophic, eutrophic and hypertrophic. Severe hypoxia was gradually reached, after which lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in amphipods from eutrophic and hypertrophic, than from mesotrophic environments, and was well correlated with trophic status of inhabited environments as assessed by chlorophyll a concentration. These findings suggest a physiological acclimation response to oxygen deficiency faced by the species in some environments in the northern invaded range, which may have a genetic background. Such resistance to oxygen deficiency may expand the environmental niche and promote species’ spread into previously unsuitable habitats, which may pose a threat to native species residing in refuges that are currently free of the invader.  相似文献   
7.
The flood zone of the Ob River, the largest (in watershed area) river of the Arctic Ocean basin, is tens of km wide and, after the Amazon's Varzea, is the world's second largest flooding territory. To better understand the biogeochemistry of the Ob River and adjacent surface waters, we studied, in May and July 2014, the dissolved and colloidal organic carbon and trace metals in small rivers, lakes, and flooded water bodies connected and disconnected with the mainstream as well as the Ob River itself. All major and trace elements were distributed among two major categories depending on their pattern of dependence on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Na, Mg, Ca, sulfate, Sr, Mo, Sb and U exhibited a general decrease in concentration with the increase of the [DOC]. The lowest concentration of these elements was observed in DOC-rich humic, acidic (4.9 ≤ pH ≤ 6.1) upland lakes fed by surrounding bogs. These elements marked the influence of underground feeding in July during summer baseflow, which was most visible in flood lakes in the Ob riparian zone and the Ob River itself. In May, the flood lakes were statistically similar to the Ob River. The elevated concentration of DOC (up to 60 mg/L) in the upland lakes was not correlated with groundwater-related elements, suggesting a lack of significant groundwater feeding in these lakes. In contrast, insoluble, usually low mobile elements (Al, Fe, other trivalent hydrolysates, Ti, Zr, Hf) and some metals (Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb) demonstrated a steady increase in concentration with increasing DOC, with the lowest values observed in the Ob River and the highest values observed in small tributaries and organic-rich upland lakes in July. It follows that these elements are limited by their main carriers – organic and organo-ferric colloids, rather than by the availability of the source, peat and mineral soil or plant litter. While for the majority of non-colloidal, groundwater-fed elements with high mobility (DIC, Na, Mg, Ca, K, Sr…) the small tributaries can be used as representatives of the Ob main stream, this is not the case for low mobility “insoluble” elements, such as Fe, Al, trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates, and metal micronutrients (Cu, Zn, and Mn). The low soluble elements and divalent metals exhibited a much lower concentration in the river mainstream compared to that in the flood lakes, upland lakes and small rivers. This difference is significantly more pronounced in the baseflow in July compared to the spring flood in May. Presumably, autochthonous processes, such as the photo-oxidation and bio-oxidation of organo-ferric colloids and phytoplankton uptake are capable decreasing the concentration of these elements in the river mainstream.  相似文献   
8.
Snow cover ablation in the Great Lakes basin is a common and hydrologically important process during the cold season, contributing to a majority of the basin's runoff, and less frequent, extreme ablation events are highly impactful due to an increased flooding risk and warrant specific investigation. A brief climatology of extreme ablation events is presented, where extreme is considered within the top 5% of the distribution. Using synoptic classification techniques, individual weather patterns associated with extreme snow ablation in the Great Lakes basin are isolated. A single pattern deemed the most influential in generating extreme ablation events, southerly flow-1, is examined in detail, and three case studies are presented to determine the meteorological conditions and surface energy fluxes responsible for ablation. Over 75% of extreme events are associated with southerly flow patterns that predominantly ablate snow with sensible heat fluxes, while rain-on-snow patterns induce the remaining extreme events from 1980–2009. Type southerly flow-1 is responsible for 45% of the extreme events and is characterized by strong southerly advection of warm air into the basin, where sensible heat fluxes of 45–125 Wm−2 are responsible for the majority of energy transfer into the snowpack. When compared with an average ablation event, an extreme ablation event for southerly flow-1 exhibits air temperatures, dew point temperatures, and wind speeds that are 3.8°C, 3.0°C, and 1.2 ms−1 warmer and faster than an average event, indicating a greater potential for larger ablation.  相似文献   
9.
Arcellinida (testate lobose amoebae) were examined from 22 surface-sediment samples collected from homogenous environments in eastern Canadian lakes (Lac du Castor Blanc, SW Quebec; Oromocto Lake, SW New Brunswick) to: 1) evaluate the faunal consistency of assemblages within the targeted environments; and, 2) assess the Arcellinida assemblage response evident in samples collected from Oromocto Lake in 2010 CE (n = 10) and 2012 CE (n = 6) to inter-annual changes in environmental conditions. Cluster analysis and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), redundancy analysis (RDA), and Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity Matrix (BCDM) were used to identify the dominant arcellinidan assemblages, determine physicochemical controls over the Arcellinida distribution, and assess the assemblages’ faunal homogeneity, respectively. Cluster analysis, DCA, and BCDM results revealed two distinct and relatively homogenous arcellinidan assemblages: 1) Lac du Castor Blanc Assemblage; and 2) Oromocto Lake Assemblage, which could further be subdivided into Oromocto Lake 2010 CE (OL10), and 2012 CE (OL12) sub-assemblages. RDA results showed that 65.6% of the variance in the arcellinidan distribution could be attributed to four significant parameters; sand size fraction (32.1%), calcium (29.2%), manganese (2.7%), and organic content (1.5%). The OL10 and OL12 sub-assemblages aligned well with the respective sample collection dates of 2010 CE and 2012 CE, with proportions of the healthy-lake-indicating Diffluggiid taxa being higher in OL12, likely due to a concurrent slight increase in substrate organic content in the 2012 CE sediments. Our results confirm the faunal homogeneity of assemblages in limnologically similar environments, and demonstrate the rapid response of Arcellinida assemblages to changes in lake conditions at inter-annual time scales.  相似文献   
10.
Dixidae (Insecta, Diptera) are an interesting ecological component in freshwater ecosystems. They are merolimnic insects with larvae and pupae living in aquatic habitats while adults live in terrestrial habitats in close proximity to water. The goals of this study were to determine the phenology patterns of Dixidae and what influences them, to analyse their preference for microhabitats, and to determine the main ecological factors that have an influence on the composition of Dixidae. Adult Dixidae were collected monthly in the period from 2007 to 2008 at 10 sites, from 2009 to 2010 at four sites, and from 2011 to 2014 at three sites in the Plitvice Lakes National Park. Adult specimens were collected using pyramid-type emergence traps. A total of 1271 Dixidae were collected during eight years of study belonging to five species of the genus Dixa. Dixa submaculata was most abundant species at the spring and upper reach of Bijela rijeka Stream and the upper reach of Crna rijeka Stream. Dixa nebulosa was most numerous at the Kozjak-Milanovac tufa barrier site. Dixa puberula was the dominant species at the rest of the sites. Dixa puberula and Dixa submaculata were univoltine, bivoltine or trivoltine, depending on the site, while Dixa nebulosa was only univoltine. The highest diversity was recorded at the tufa barrier Kozjak-Milanovac, and the highest number of species, four species, was found at the upper reach of the Crna rijeka Stream. The greatest number of specimens was recorded at the Labudovac tufa barrier, 128 specimens in 2014. Water temperature is the main ecological factor that influences the phenology of Dixidae at the tufa barriers and lower streams. Discharge affected the abundance of Dixidae. Dixa puberula prefers moss as a substrate and a faster water velocity.  相似文献   
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