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1.
Regional inequality is a core issue in geography,and it can be measured by several approaches and indexes.However,the global inequality measures can not reflect regional characteristics in terms of spatiality and non-mobility,as well as correctly explore regional inequality in particular directions.Although conventional between-group inequality indexes can measure the inequality in particular directions,they can not reflect the reversals of regional patterns and changes of within-group patterns.Therefore,we set forth a new approach to measure regional inequality in particular directions,which is applicable to geographic field.Based on grouping,we established a new index to measure regional inequality in particular directions named Particular Direction Inequality index(PDI index),which is comprised of between-group inequality of all data and between-group average gap.It can reflect regional spatiality and non-mobility,judge the main direction of regional inequality,and capture the changes and reversals of regional patterns.We used the PDI index to measure the changes of regional inequality from 1952 to 2009 in China.The results show that:1) the main direction of China’s regional inequality was between coastal areas and inland areas;the increasing extent of inequality between coastal areas and inland areas was higher than the global inequality;2) the PDI index can measure the between-region average gap,and is more sensitive to evolution of within-region patterns;3) the inequality between the northern China and the southern China has been decreasing from 1952 to 2009 and was reversed in 1994 and 1995.  相似文献   
2.
This study investigated the regional differences of China′s urban land expansion from the late 1980s to the year of 2008, based on the spatio-temporal analysis of CLCD (China′s land cover/land use database) datasets which were mainly produced from remote sensing imagery data. A newly defined urbanization level index (UI), based on urban land area, is proposed to describe Chinese urban expansion process at 1 kilometer, provincial, regional, and na-tional scales, together with the absolute urban expansion index (UEa) and the relative urbanization expansion index (UEr). The results indicate that the percentages of total land area occupied by urban in the late 1980s, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008 were approximately 0.25%, 0.32%, 0.33%, 0.43% and 0.52% of China′s total land area, respectively. Between the late 1980s and 2008, the total urban expansion in the mainland of China was 2.645 × 104 km2, resulting in an annual urban expansion area of about 1322.7 km2/yr, with the UEr of 111.9%. This study also finds that there has been an obvious spatial gradient of urbanization ratio running from the east coast to the west inland, and the urbanization gaps among different regions have persisted over the past two decades. The study also reveals obvious temporal varia-tions of the urbanization rates. There was very little urban growth during the period of 1995-2000 due to the governmental policy factors.  相似文献   
3.
The Kungurian-Capitanian ( Permian) Zhesi branchiopod fauna is mainly composed of cold-water typed taxa with high diversity and abundance. This fauna is similar with the coeval brachiopod faunas from Timan-Pechora,Svalbard,and Queen Elizabeth Islands of the Boreal Realm,with no real"warm-water"species. Zhesi brachiopod fauna is a cold-water fauna and should be assigned to the Boreal Realm. Considering the paleogeographic characteristics of this fauna and the basic rationale of paleobiogeographic provinces being controlled by latitude-temperate,and that the above areas were located at 50°N 70°N in the global paleoclimate reconstruction map compiled by Boucot et al. ,the paleo-latitude of the southern margin of Jiamusi-Mongolia Block,where developed the Zhesi brachiopod fauna,is suggested ranging from 40°N to 60°N. Zhesi brachiopod fauna is an endemic fauna,containing more than 75% endemic species and self-grouped as a biogeographic province,termed Inner Mongolia Province. These characteristics indicate that this area was closed or semiclosed at that time. On the Jiamusi-Mongolia Block,the Herlen-Jiamusi Old-land as an obvious "continental barrier"hindered the northward migration of the Zhesi brachiopod fauna and the immigration of brachiopod species from other areas. The Tarim plate has collided with the Kazakhstan plate and the western part of South Tianshan-Beishan-Xar Moron Ocean has been closed. At the same time,the western margin of Jiamusi-Mongolia Block was joined with the Tarim plate. The Xar Moron Ocean in south of Jiamusi-Mongolia Block was wide enough and the ocean temperature rose gradually southward,so that it is not suitable for the cold-water brachiopods to survive and thrive on the northern margin of the North China plate. Thus,the ocean with large width and high temperature formed another natural barrier for the southward migration of the cold-water brachiopods.  相似文献   
4.
准中4区块侏罗系头屯河组滩坝及风暴沉积特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
在准噶尔盆地中部(简称准中)4区块侏罗系岩心观察的基础上,考虑粒度分析、薄片镜下观察及古气候恢复成果,认为该区头屯河组沉积时期发育滨浅湖滩坝沉积;以典型风暴沉积构造的识别为基础,提出一种与滩坝相伴生出现的新的风暴岩类型——滨浅湖风暴岩,并建立理想垂向序列模型,自下至上依次为:递变、块状层段(Sa),平行层段、冲洗交错层段(Sb),波状层段(Sc);断续纹层段(Sd)和滨浅湖泥岩段(Se).该类风暴岩发育在正常浪基面之上的滨浅湖地区,与半深湖风暴岩相比,更易遭受后期波浪改造而难以完整保存;因其发育的平面位置不同,滨浅湖风暴岩序列顶底的沉积物可以是氧化色调的滨浅湖泥坪沉积物或是正常的滨浅湖滩坝沉积物.滨浅湖风暴岩的提出完善了滨浅湖滩坝沉积体系,为研究区古地理、古气候特征的恢复提供线索,为滩坝的成因和沉积环境研究提供思路,对准噶尔盆地隐蔽油气藏的勘探具有一定指导意义.  相似文献   
5.
考虑裂缝干扰的气藏压裂水平井产能预测模型   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
基于压裂水平井井身结构复杂,需要建立考虑裂缝参数变化且符合水平井渗流特征的产能预测模型.为准确预测压裂水平井产能,通过保角变换和势的叠加原理,建立新模型,不仅考虑裂缝长度、裂缝间距、裂缝夹角的变化对压裂水平井产能的影响,还考虑裂缝间的相互干扰.结果表明:压裂水平井产能随着裂缝条数、长度和裂缝夹角的增加而增大.模型通过现场验证,计算单井无阻流量与试采结果对比,相对误差为8.3%,计算结果较为准确.  相似文献   
6.
为研究常规砂岩油田注水开发过程中的多油层开采动态、层间干扰、开发效果分析等,对一维水驱油恒压驱替渗流过程进行理论推导.结果表明:在采出端见水前,通过油水两相区压力、纯油区压力及总压差之间关系,结合Buck-ley-Leverett方程,建立累计注入量与注入时间的关系,以及见水前位置、时间、含水饱和度之间的数学关系,求解前缘位置、前缘压差、注入速度等参数随时间的变化;在采出端见水后,分析注入速度与采出端含水饱和度关系、累计注入量与采出端含水饱和度关系,以及采出端含水饱和度与时间的关系,建立见水后位置、时间、含水饱和度之间的数学关系,求解见水后出口端含水饱和度、注入速度等参数随时间的变化.该结果为驱替过程中各物理量随时间的变化、含水饱和度的分布、各物理量之间的理论关系等研究提供指导.  相似文献   
7.
渤海湾盆地济阳拗陷沙三段页岩气地质条件分析   总被引:7,自引:6,他引:1  
沙河街组三段的湖相富有机质泥页岩是济阳拗陷常规油气的主力烃源岩,也是该拗陷页岩气勘探的重点研究层系.分析沙三段暗色泥页岩的地球化学指标、页岩储层特征、含气性等,探讨济阳拗陷沙河街组湖相泥页岩形成页岩气的地质条件.结果表明:沙河街组湖相泥页岩沉积厚度大,平均大于200m;有机碳含量高,干酪根类型好,以Ⅰ型为主,Ⅱ1和Ⅱ2为辅;成熟度以成熟—高熟为主,与美国产气页岩和中国南方上扬子地区海相富有机质页岩地球化学特征具有可比性.湖相泥页岩脆性矿物质量分数高,石英与碳酸盐岩所占比例大,黏土矿物质量分数为10%~30%,页岩储层裂缝类型多样.由于砂泥岩互层频繁,粉砂或砂质夹层孔隙可以有效改善页岩储层储集性能,为页岩气提供有效的储集空间.泥页岩层段气测显示异常,指示其良好的含气性.沙三段富有机质泥页岩是济阳拗陷页岩气勘探的优选层系,具有良好的页岩气勘探潜力.  相似文献   
8.
The conventional narrative regarding the American reception of George Perkins Marsh, author of Man and Nature (1864), is that his work and ideas were “lost,”“forgotten,” or “neglected” until Lewis Mumford “rediscovered” him and introduced him to geographers at the University of California‐Berkeley through The Brown Decades (Mumford [1931] 1955) and until Carl Sauer made him known to the profession at large beginning in 1938. This article upends the conventional narrative by looking at earlier references to Marsh's later versions of Man and Nature, which were published as The Earth as Modified by Human Action from 1874 to 1907. Analysis reveals that a number of geographers and historians cited these editions between 1875 and the early 1950s. Examining the legend of loss and rediscovery suggests the value of methods utilized in reception studies for research on the history of geography.  相似文献   
9.
戴光全  谭健萍 《地理学报》2012,67(8):1109-1124
从报纸媒体的角度研究广交会作为重大事件的综合影响力的时空分布特点.以中国知网(http://www.cnki.net/)所属“中国重要报纸全文数据库”(CCND) 2000-05-05到2011-05-30时间段内“广交会”为主题的4333条新闻报道为研究文本,通过传播学中的内容分析法建构分析类目,统计类目包括新闻的时间、所属的届数与期数、报社所在城市、新闻版面、新闻字数等,共由3个编码员进行统计,并对类目编码进行信度检测.在对新闻内容进行计量统计的基础上,引进信息熵度量信息量,利用信息熵和报道篇数构建广交会综合影响力指标,进一步构建广交会空间综合影响力指数方程,分析广交会综合影响力在全国的分布情况,并检验综合影响力指标和经济指标的相关性.结果发现:①从时间分布来看,以新闻报道数量来衡量,在事件(广交会)进行时其综合影响力存在时间衰减现象,各展期综合影响力的年际变化则呈现为周期性的年度重复现象.②从空间分布来看,广交会综合影响力空间分布与城市参展商数量、经济情况和距离有着密切的联系:受影响大的城市主要集中在沿海经济发达的省份,受影响小的城市主要分布在西部和北部,整体上综合影响力大小和城市分布的密度由东到西递减;综合影响力总体上存在显著的空间距离衰减,但对于北京和上海这两个特殊城市而言,空间距离已经不是广交会综合影响力的主要因素,而在广交会举办地的“当地”(广东省内)较短的距离内,距离衰减并不显著,当空间距离超出一定范围,则存在明显的距离衰减现象.  相似文献   
10.
中国传统农区过去300年耕地重建结果的对比分析   总被引:12,自引:4,他引:8  
土地覆被变化是气候与生态效应模拟研究的重要参量.SAGE和HYDE两个全球历史土地利用数据集在相关研究中得到广泛应用,但在区域尺度上的应用,其可靠性如何,至今少有论及.以我国学者重建的传统农区历史耕地数据集(CHCD)为基础,从全区、省区和网格(60 km×60 km)三个空间尺度,对SAGE (2010)和HYDE3.1数据集中有关中国传统农区历史耕地重建结果进行对比分析,结果表明:(1) SAGE (2010)数据集对中国传统农区耕地数量重建是以单一线性插补而得,其中1700-1950年是以0.51%的年均增长率线性递增,1950年后是以0.34%年均速率线性递减,这种“标准化”变化趋势不能客观反映传统农区土地垦殖的真实历史,耕地面积也明显高估,与CHCD数据集不具有可比性;(2) HYDE3.1数据集吸纳了区域性研究成果,使其在总量上与CHCD数据集较为接近,具有较好的可比性,但其在省区和网格尺度上与CHCD存在显著差异,其中相对差异率超过70%(<-70%或>70%)的网格占比高达56%~63%,超过90%(<-90%或>90%)的网格占比也高达40%~45%;而相对差异率介于-10%~10%的网格占比仅为5%~6%,介于-30%~30%的网格占比也仅为17%左右;(3)充分利用我国丰富的历史文献,建立更高精度的中国区域历史土地利用数据集,是提高区域气候与生态效应模拟研究质量的重要保障.  相似文献   
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