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1.
Since the mechanical twinning along calcite e-planes has a critical resolved shear stress, not only principal stress axes but also differential stress can be determined from the orientations of twin lamellae. Based on the five-dimensional stress space that fulfills the principle of coordinate invariance, it is shown in this article that the inversion of twin and untwin data is comparable with fitting a spherical cap to data points on a unit sphere in the space. The principal stress orientations and stress ratio are indicated by the center of the cap, whereas differential stress is denoted by the size of the cap. Based on this geometrical interpretation, the generalized Hough transform was applied to the inversion of the data in this study. The new method is demonstrated to be robust to sampling bias, variability in the critical resolved shear stress. The determination of differential stress was difficult when the differential stress to be detected was ∼10 times larger than the critical resolved shear stress. Stresses were separated by the method from heterogeneous data successfully as long as the spherical caps corresponding to the stresses to be detected had no or a small intersection.  相似文献   
2.
Noise levels in marine and airborne full tensor gravity gradiometer surveys together with conventional land, marine and airborne gravity surveys are estimated and analysed in gridded form, resulting in relations that detail how these different survey systems can be compared analytically. After defining survey parameters including line spacing, speed and instrument bandwidth, the relations estimate the noise levels that result on either grids of gravity (gz) or gravity gradient (Gzz) as a function of the spatial filtering often applied during geological interpretation. Such comparisons are believed to be a useful preliminary guide for survey selection and planning.  相似文献   
3.
Deep-sea microorganism research has become a hot topic in life science, owing to its special value in high pressure and low temperature environment. If not kept the in-situ low temperature and high pressure, it will cause the microorganism to lose its activity and lead to a waste of resources. A freeze-sediments valve presents a promising solution to maintain the low temperature and high pressure in situ, improve the success rate of sampling and shorten the sampling time. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the freeze-sediments valve, including the sampling time without leakage, adaptation to different sediments and the effect of the length, etc. Most important of all, temperature change of sediments is observed in all experiments. Experimental results indicated that the freeze-sediments valve was formed in 5 min without leakage and the freeze-sediments valve could be applied to different sediments without limitations on sediments type and mineral content. Considering the pressure retaining capacity and formation time of freeze-sediments valve, it was found that the freeze-sediments valve with a length of 60–80 mm has good pressure retaining capacity whose value was 41.3–48.4 Mpa and short formation time which was 5 min. Precooling the sampler could be used to shorten the sampling time in the actual environment application. This sampling technique can play a vital role in maintaining in-situ low temperature at −2 to −4 ° Celsius in all the experiments. According to the tests, the sampling technique based on the freeze-sediments valve had the potential to solve the problem of keeping in-situ temperature, low sampling success rate and long sampling time in the future.  相似文献   
4.
When luminescence dating was being developed much scientific effort was invested in showing it could achieve the correct ages, but this is now not routinely carried out for established protocols. This paper focussed on known age deposits from two case studies to explore whether correct ages were achieved. Case study 1 used the Storegga tsunami deposit dated to 8.2 ka sampled both horizontally and vertically and measured with OSL, IRSL and pIRIR. All results, for both quartz and feldspars, returned the correct age for the horizontal sample. Results from the vertical sample were more problematic with issues attributed to ongoing feldspar contamination of quartz and to beta heterogeneity. To agree with the independent age control single aliquot results required combination of >400 palaeodose replicates and in the case of IRSL the use of minimum age models. Measurements of feldspars at the single grain level using pIRIR measurements showed much improvement. Case study 2 used a barchan dune on the Tibet Plateau, China known to have been in position ∼10 years. Both quartz and feldspars returned young ages close to the true age, but the feldspar ages with brighter luminescence signal were more accurate once the luminescence signal to background ratio was optimised. On the basis of this study we advise against sampling vertically. We also recommend measuring feldspars with single grain pIRIR where possible, measuring >150 palaeodose replicates per sample and choosing feldspars rather than quartz for very young samples.  相似文献   
5.
The implementation of Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) for the propagation of uncertainty in real-world seawater intrusion (SWI) numerical models often becomes computationally prohibitive due to the large number of deterministic solves needed to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy. Previous studies have mostly relied on parallelization and grid computing to decrease the computational time of MCSs. However, another approach which has received less attention in the literature is to decrease the number of deterministic simulations by using more efficient sampling strategies. Sampling efficiency is a measure of the optimality of a sampling strategy. A more efficient sampling strategy requires fewer simulations and less computational time to reach a certain level of accuracy. The efficiency of a sampling strategy is highly related to its space-filling characteristics.This paper illustrates that the use of optimized Latin hypercube sampling (OLHS) strategies instead of the widely employed simple random sampling (SRS) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) strategies, can significantly improve sampling efficiency and hence decrease the simulation time of MCSs. Nine OLHS strategies are evaluated including: improved Latin hypercube sampling (IHS); optimum Latin hypercube (OLH) sampling; genetic optimum Latin hypercube (GOLH) sampling; three sampling strategies based on the enhanced stochastic evolutionary (ESE) algorithm namely φp-ESE which employs the φp space-filling criterion, CLD-ESE which utilizes the centered L2-discrepancy (CLD) space-filling criterion, and SLD-ESE which uses the star L2-discrepancy (SLD) space-filling criterion; and three sampling strategies based on the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm namely φp-SA which employs the φp criterion, CLD-SA which uses the CLD criterion, and SLD-SA which utilizes the SLD criterion. The study applies SRS, LHS and the nine OLHS strategies to MCSs of two synthetic test cases of SWI. The two test cases are the Henry problem and a two-dimensional radial representation of SWI in a circular island. The comparison demonstrates that the CLD-ESE strategy is the most efficient among the evaluated strategies. This paper also demonstrates how the space-filling characteristics of different OLHS designs change with variations in the input arguments of their optimization algorithms.  相似文献   
6.
正20141864 Deng Mengchun(Institute of Exploration Technology,CAGS,Chengdu 611734,China);Huang Shenghui Rock Sample Collection and Division Technologies for Air Reverse Circulation Sampling Drilling(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,40(7),2013,p.73-76,80,16 illus.,5 refs.)  相似文献   
7.
8.
In the quantitative evaluation of radar-rainfall products (maps), rain gauge data are generally used as a good approximation of the true ground rainfall. However, rain gauges provide accurate measurements for a specific location, while radar estimates represent areal averages. Because these sampling discrepancies could introduce noise into the comparisons between these two sensors, they need to be accounted for. In this study, the spatial sampling error is defined as the ratio between the measurements by a single rain gauge and the true areal rainfall, defined as the value obtained by averaging the measurements by an adequate number of gauges within a pixel. Using a non-parametric scheme, the authors characterize its full statistical distribution for several spatial (4, 16 and 36 km2) and temporal (15 min and hourly) scales.  相似文献   
9.
Patchiness or spatial variability is ubiquitous in marine systems. With increasing anthropogenic impacts to coastal resources and coastal systems being disproportionately large contributors to ocean productivity, identifying the spatial scales of this patchiness, particularly in coastal waters, is of critical importance to understand coastal ecosystem dynamics. The current work focuses on fine scale structure in three coastal regions. More specifically, we utilize variogram analyses to identify sub-kilometer scales of variability in biological and physical parameters measured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, Monterey Bay, and in San Luis Obispo Bay between 2001 and 2004. Critical scales of variability in density, turbidity, fluorescence, and bioluminescence are examined as a function of depth and distance offshore. Furthermore, the effects of undersampling are assessed using predictive error analysis. Results indicate the presence of scales of variability ranging from 10s to 100s of meters and provide valuable insight for sampling design and resource allocation for future studies.  相似文献   
10.
Mongolian herders are transhumant and therefore follow a specific land use pattern. To understand their movements through a case study, we mapped and superimposed their seasonal camps on a vegetation map and a digital elevation model. We also questioned them about the reasons justifying the locations of their camps, and how they use the surrounding land. It appears that vegetation quality may play a role only in summer, whereas topography is a key driver during 3 seasons. In winter, herders seek shelter against cold winds in rugged places exposed to the south, while in spring and summer, they seek flat places. In spring, to have a clear view of their newborns and in summer, to allow wind to reduce the insect discomfort. Moreover, most of the livestock species stay within a certain distance of the camps depending on the season, but which never exceeds 5.1 km. This leads to a land use pattern where livestock is restrained to specific areas according to the season. Interestingly, during the growing season, when plants are most sensitive to defoliation, most livestock is concentrated on 30.92% of the site surface. Such information is important for range scientists working on grazing impacts at large scales.  相似文献   
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