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1.
This article presents an overview of smart structures technologies in connection with long-span cable-supported bridges. Considering the broad scope of the smart structures technologies, two subareas, namely, structural health monitoring and structural control technologies, and their applications in long-span cable supported bridges, are identified as the focus of this review. It is believed that by, adopting the smart structures technologies, reliable operation and hazard management of long-span bridges can be achieved much more efficiently and can be made economically feasible, especially for bridges located at sites with high risks of severe natural hazardous events, such as those facing the bridges of the Taiwan Strait Crossing project. The feasibility of and practical issues in implementing the smart structures technologies in the design and construction of long-span cable-supported bridges are also discussed here. Considering the time span of the construction of the Taiwan Strait Crossing, some of the innovative technologies with a high potential for future long-span bridge applications, while still at the stage of exploratory research at the time of writing, are also examined as it is believed these technologies might have become prevalent by the completion time of the Taiwan Strait Crossing project.  相似文献   
2.
李金良  黄永林 《中国地震》2023,39(2):385-394
公元1624年2月10日,即明代天启三年12月22日,在现今江苏省范围内发生了一次破坏性地震。在历次出版的地震目录中,扬州被确定为本次地震的震中,其主要依据为“扬州倒卸城垣三百八十余垛、城铺二十余处”的历史记述。《地震亘江南北疏》的发现为本次地震的研究提供了新的资料。本文分析已有资料的可靠性;选择相对可靠的历史资料划定Ⅵ度等烈度线;采用新划定的Ⅵ度等烈度线,按历史地震影响烈度的衰减关系确定本次地震的震级为6 1/4级;综合Ⅵ度等烈度线范围内的地震地质条件以及历史地震资料中人的感受、地表变形和各地地声方向记录,综合确定了震中位置大致在32.2°N、119.5°E,与1913年4月3日镇江5 1/2级地震(参考地名“江苏镇江”)震中相距不远。此外,本文还描述了本次地震的地震序列。  相似文献   
3.
The recent transformation of wetlands into farmland in East Africa is accelerating due to growing food-demand, land shortages, and an increasing unpredictability of climatic conditions for crop production in uplands. However, the conversion of pristine wetlands into sites of production may alter hydrological attributes with negative effects on production potential. Particularly the amount and the dynamics of plant available soil moisture in the rooting zone of crops determine to a large extent the agricultural production potential of wetlands. Various methods exist to assess soil moisture dynamics with Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) being among the most prominent. However, the suitability of FDR sensors for assessing plant available soil moisture has to date not been confirmed for wetland soils in the region. We monitored the seasonal and spatial dynamics of water availability for crop growth in an inland valley wetland of the Kenyan highlands using a FDR sensor which was site-specifically calibrated. Access tubes were installed within different wetland use types and hydrological situations along valley transects and soil properties affecting soil moisture (organic C, texture, and bulk density) were investigated. There was little variation in soil attributes between physical positions in the valley, and also between topsoil and subsoil attributes with the exception of organic C contents. With a root mean squared error of 0.073 m3/m3, the developed calibration function of the FDR sensor allows for reasonably accurate soil moisture prediction for both within-site comparisons and the monitoring of temporal soil moisture variations. Applying the calibration equation to a time series of profile probe readings over a period of one year illustrated not only the temporal variation of soil moisture, but also effects of land use.  相似文献   
4.
The Maozu Pb–Zn deposit, located on the western margin of the Yangtze Block, southwest China, is a typical carbonate-hosted deposit in the Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou Pb–Zn metallogenic province with Pb + Zn reserves of about 2.0 million tonnes grading 4.15 wt.% Pb and 7.25 wt.% Zn. Its ore bodies are hosted in Sinian (635–541 Ma) Dengying Formation dolostone and show stratiform, vein and irregular textures. Ores are composed of sphalerite, galena, pyrite, calcite, dolomite, quartz and fluorite with massive, banded, disseminated and veined structures. The C–O–Sm–Nd isotopic compositions of hydrothermal calcites and S–Pb isotopic compositions of sulfides were analyzed to constrain the origin of the Maozu deposit. δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of hydrothermal calcites range from −3.7‰ to −2.0‰ and +13.8‰ to +17.5‰, respectively, and plot near the marine carbonate rocks field in a plot of δ13CPDB vs. δ18OSMOW, with a negative correlation. It suggests that CO2 in the hydrothermal fluids was mainly originated from marine carbonate rocks, with limited influence from sedimentary organic matter. δ34SCDT values of sulfides range from +9.9‰ to +19.2‰, similar to that of Cambrian to Triassic seawater sulfate (+15‰ to +35‰) and evaporate (+15‰ to +30‰) in the Cambrian to Triassic sedimentary strata. It suggests that reduced sulfur was derived from evaporate in sedimentary strata by thermo chemical sulfate reduction. Sulfides have low radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 18.129–18.375, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.640–15.686 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.220–38.577) that plot in the field between upper crust and the orogenic belt evolution curve in the plot of 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, and similar to that of age corrected Proterozoic basement rocks (Dongchuan and Kunyang Groups). This indicates that ore-forming metals were mainly derived from basement rocks. Hydrothermal calcite yields a Sm–Nd isotopic age of 196 ± 13 Ma, possibly reflecting the timing of Pb–Zn mineralization in the SYG province, younger than the Permian Emeishan mantle plume (∼260 Ma). All data combined suggests that hydrothermal fluids circulated through basement rocks where they picked up metals and migrated to surface, mixed with reduced sulfur-bearing fluids and precipitated metals. Ore genesis of the Maozu deposit is different from known magmatic–hydrothermal, Sedimentary Exhalative or Mississippi Valley-types, which maybe represent a unique ore deposit type, named as the SYG-type.  相似文献   
5.
High-frequency spectral decay factor, kappa (k), in the accelerograms of the Wenchuan mainshock was measured using strong motion data from 52 stations within 311 km of the epicenter. The derived k range from 0.0034 s to 0.0468 s. The correlation of k versus fault distance was given, which is k = 0.01288 + 5.9068 × 10–5 R for the N-S component, k = 0.01881 + 1.4219 × 10–5 R for the E-W component, and k = 0.00855 + 5.6086 × 10–5 R for the U-D component. The analysis on the spatial variation of k demonstrates that k relates to source effect and propagation effect besides local site effect. Ground motions for the 52 stations were simulated using derived k and compared to actual recordings in terms of waveforms, amplitude spectra and response spectra. The results show agreement at shorter periods (<1 s), but a slight overestimation at longer periods (1–7 s).  相似文献   
6.
7.
基于拉格朗日方法的江淮梅雨水汽输送特征分析   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
江志红  任伟  刘征宇  杨浩 《气象学报》2013,71(2):295-304
利用NCEP再分析资料,引入基于拉格朗日方法的气流轨迹模式(HYSPLITv4.9),结合用于海量轨迹分析的气块追踪分析方法,探讨了江淮梅雨气候平均的水汽输送特征以及梅雨异常年水汽输送的差异。结果表明,在气候态下,江淮梅雨的水汽主要来自印度洋、孟加拉湾—中国南海、太平洋和欧亚大陆4个区域,其对江淮梅雨的水汽输送贡献分别为35%、19%、22%和19%。其中,印度洋、孟加拉湾—中国南海和太平洋上的输送气流主要来自850 hPa以下的对流层低层,而欧亚大陆的输送气流主要来自600 hPa左右的对流层中层。进一步对比梅雨异常年水汽输送的差异,发现孟加拉湾—中国南海、太平洋和印度洋的水汽输送对江淮梅雨的异常有重要影响,梅雨偏多年来自孟加拉湾—中国南海的水汽输送较多,其对江淮梅雨的水汽输送贡献为24%,比梅雨偏少年约增加了13%,梅雨偏少年则是来自太平洋和印度洋的水汽输送较多,对江淮梅雨的水汽输送贡献分别达到了40%和30%,比梅雨偏多年约增加了5%和10%。  相似文献   
8.
滑坡稳定性评价中地震作用力计算的讨论   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
阐述了目前国内外在滑坡地震稳定性评价方面的理论研究成果和实际应用情况,指出地质矿产行业规范在采用静力法计算地震力时没有乘以0.25的综合影响系数,和其它规范的差别是巨大的.分析后认为这个规定是值得商榷的.最后根据宏观震害现象提出易引起滑坡的地质情况并对其进行了分析,为滑坡治理工程设计和以后的规范修编提供了方法和思路.  相似文献   
9.
杜玉霞  马巍  赵淑萍  张泽  明姣 《冰川冻土》2016,38(6):1583-1591
在使用激光位移传感器测试冻土位移中,由于测试现场环境条件恶劣,厂家给出的传感器线性度会降低,因此,需要对所有传感器在使用前应模拟使用时的环境条件重新进行标定.为验证激光位移传感器在冻土测试中的适用性,依据德国森萨帕特FT-50 RLA220型激光位移传感器的结构、使用特点、技术指标,设计了由控温箱、标定支架、激光位移传感器、量块及数据采集装置组成的标定的装置,进行了不同负温条件下对激光位移传感器标定,并依据标定试验结果进行拟合参数修正,得到不同环境温度下的试验结果的线性度和迟滞特性.试验结果表明:不同的环境温度下,两个激光位移传感器与标准厂家测试曲线存在差异,不同负温条件下标定的两个激光位移传感器的拟合优度R2分别为0.999和1;线性度最大值分别为0.88%FS和0.32%FS.  相似文献   
10.
Volcanic eruptions can significantly cool the global troposphere on the time scales from several months up to a decade due to reflection of solar radiation by sulfate aerosols and feedback mechanisms in the climate system. The impact of volcanic eruptions on global climate are discussed in many studies. However, few studies have been done on the impact of volcanic eruption on climate change in China in the past millennium. The 1300-year and 600-year temperature series were reconstructed based on the six tree-ring temperature proxy data in northeastern and southeastern Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Three warm periods occurred in 670-920,1000-1310 and 1590-1930, and three cold periods happened at 920-1000,1310-1590 and 1930-2000 in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. There were two obviously warm periods (1385-1450 and 1570-1820) and two cold periods (1450-1570 and 1820-2000) in southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Contrasting with volcanic eruption chronology, we analyzed the relationship between volcanic activity and temperature variation in the eastern Tibetan plateau during the past millennium using Superposed Epoch Analysis (SEA) method. The results indicated that the temperature decreased one year after large volcanic eruptions located beteen 10°S and 10°N in latitude in northeastern Tibetan Plateau and two years in southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The volcanic eruptions occurred at different latitudes have different impacts on the temperature variations, which may be caused by regional difference, the nature of the eruption, the magnitude of the resulting change in incoming solar radiation, prevailing background climate and internal variability, season, latitude, and other considerations.  相似文献   
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