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1.
The Council for Geoscience (CGS, South Africa) has a statutory mandate to carry out regional geochemical mapping in South Africa that needs to be rapidly and accurately analysed. Both simultaneous X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (S-XRF) and a newly developed method using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed. Various trace elements that could not previously be analysed by S-XRF can now be analysed by ICP-MS for the regional geochemical mapping programme, e.g., Cd, Mo, Te and Li. Using both techniques, the CGS aims to report element distributions for some fifty elements. To ensure that element concentration levels correlate over map boundaries, quality control measures in the sampling, sample preparation and analyses were of critical importance. This paper aims to discuss the sample preparation and quality control measures as applied to the ∼5500 samples of the Giyani and Tzaneen 1:100000 scale map sheets sampled at a density of one soil sample per km2. ICP-MS batch- and instrumental drift-correction procedures will be discussed. As a final step, geochemical data were overlain over simplified geological maps using geographical information system software. These maps complement existing geological information of South Africa, help in the identification of exploration targets, test exploration models and initiate further geological research.  相似文献   
2.
This review describes developments major and in trace element determination using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry that were reported in 2008 and 2009. Publication levels were comparable to those of previous years, except for XRF which showed an increase in the number of articles published in the past 2 years. In terms of number of publications and impact, the most active field was AAS, while INAA was the least active. As expected for well-established and mature methods, novel developments for all four analytical techniques were relatively sparse. For AAS, the most notable publications concerned developments in sample introduction, particularly focussing on solid samples, increasing analyte sensitivity, and higher sample throughput. For ICP-AES, publication of developments in sample introduction, remediation of matrix effects and calibration continues. Compared with past years, there was a clear focus on sample preconcentration methods, but very few publications reporting new hyphenated speciation methods. For INAA, there were several publications exploring the accuracy and robustness of the method, as well as the requirements for INAA to meet criteria for a primary method of measurement. Two other related techniques, delayed neutron activation analysis, and prompt gamma activation analysis, were also described. Hyphenated XRF techniques showed interesting developments in enabling XRF and XRD analysis on the same spot, and further work characterising and calibrating three-dimensional micro-XRF shows promising results for investigating sample heterogeneity.  相似文献   
3.
Lithological evidence, benthic foraminiferal census counts, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanner-derived elemental data were integrated with planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and bulk carbonate stable isotopes to retrace the Turonian to early Campanian paleoenvironmental evolution and sea-level history of the Tarfaya Atlantic coastal basin (SW Morocco). The lower Turonian is characterized by laminated organic-rich deposits, which contain impoverished benthic foraminiferal assemblages, reflecting impingement of the oxygen minimum zone on the shelf during a sea-level highstand. This highstand level is correlated to the global transgressive pulse above the sequence boundary Tu1. The appearance of low-oxygen tolerant benthic foraminiferal assemblages dominated by Gavelinella sp. in the middle to upper Turonian indicates an improvement in bottom water oxygenation, probably linked to offshore retraction of the oxygen minimum zone during a regressive phase. This interval is marked by major regressive events expressed by a series of erosional truncations associated with the prominent sequence boundaries Tu3 and/or Tu4. Dysoxic–anoxic conditions recorded in the upper Santonian of the Tarfaya Basin coincide with the eustatic sea-level rise prior to Sa3 sequence boundary. The lower Campanian transgression, only recorded in the southern part of the Tarfaya Basin, coincided with substantial deepening, enhanced accumulation of fine-grained clay-rich hemipelagic sediments and improved oxygenation at the seafloor (highest diversity and abundance of benthic foraminiferal assemblages). Stable isotope data from bulk carbonates are tentatively correlated to the English Chalk carbon isotope reference curve, in particular the Hitch Wood Event in the upper Turonian, the Navigation Event in the lower Coniacian, the Horseshoe Bay Event in the Santonian and the Santonian/Campanian Boundary Event.  相似文献   
4.
We evaluate the performance of a hand‐held XRF (HHXRF) spectrometer for the bulk analysis of iron meteorites. Analytical precision and accuracy were tested on metal alloy certified reference materials and iron meteorites of known chemical composition. With minimal sample preparation (i.e., flat or roughly polished surfaces) HHXRF allowed the precise and accurate determination of most elements heavier than Mg, with concentrations > 0.01% m/m in metal alloy CRMs, and of major elements Fe and Ni and minor elements Co, P and S (generally ranging from 0.1 to 1% m/m) in iron meteorites. In addition, multiple HHXRF spot analyses could be used to determine the bulk chemical composition of iron meteorites, which are often characterised by sulfide and phosphide accessory minerals. In particular, it was possible to estimate the P and S bulk contents, which are of critical importance for the petrogenesis and evolution of Fe‐Ni‐rich liquids and iron meteorites. This study thus validates HHXRF as a valuable tool for use in meteoritics, allowing the rapid, non‐destructive (a) identification of the extraterrestrial origin of metallic objects (i.e., archaeological artefacts); (b) preliminary chemical classification of iron meteorites; (c) identification of mislabelled/unlabelled specimens in museums and private collections and (d) bulk analysis of iron meteorites.  相似文献   
5.
通过对热带碳循环"973"项目于2008年暖池区专题航次采集的KX08-97321-2柱状样(01°25.01'S,157°58.91'E;水深1897m)进行X射线荧光光谱(XRF)扫描以及浮游有孔虫氧同位素测定.结果发现,In(Ba/Ti)和In(ca/Ti)指示的赤道西太平洋古生产力在过去的370ka以来具有明显...  相似文献   
6.
Variation in beta dose rate within rocks may impact the results of rock surface luminescence dating, for both the burial age of cobbles and exposure age of rock surfaces. Current methods of rock surface luminescence dating assume that radionuclides are homogeneously distributed inside rocks. In this study, two rapid methods based on beta counting and on a portable XRF instrument were developed to measure the radioactivity of rock slices. These methods were applied to rock slices from four glaciofluvial granite cobbles that had previously been used for equivalent dose determination to test whether beta dose variation could be observed. Results from beta counting and K content from XRF show similar patterns and both vary along the depth profiles, but the magnitude of this variability is very different amongst the four cobbles. In rocks where the dose rate is highly variable, bleaching may not be the only source of variation of Ln/Tn or equivalent dose (De) along the luminescence-depth profile of cobbles, and it may be necessary to measure the beta dose rate for every single slice to determine whether multiple bleaching events are recorded or variations in De are due to dose rate heterogeneity.  相似文献   
7.
8.
哈拉湖岩芯XRF扫描元素统计分析及其环境意义   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
青藏高原东北缘高山湖泊哈拉湖是位于季风与西风影响的交汇带的封闭深水湖泊,是区域环境和气候变化的良好记录载体。目前对该湖的研究还较少,缺乏对沉积物中元素环境意义的系统认识。通过高分辨率XRF岩芯扫描,用相关、聚类和因子分析的方法对哈拉湖沉积岩芯地球化学元素进行分析。结果显示Ti、K、Si、Al、Fe、Mn等元素变化一致,相关性高,归为同一类,即径流输入的陆源碎屑组分,反映了流域水文状况如径流量的变化。Sr、Zr元素相关性高,为赋存在粗颗粒沉积物中的元素,根据哈拉湖实际,应为冬季湖泊冰面风力搬运,反映了湖区冬季风力强度的变化。Ca元素既与径流输入元素总体变化一致,也与Sr、Zr元素显著相关,且在第一和第二主成分(径流和风力)上的载荷相当,表明哈拉湖沉积物中的碳酸盐既有粗颗粒的外源碎屑,也有湖泊自生的组分,这在利用碳酸盐进行地球化学研究时应重视,注意去除外源碎屑碳酸盐的影响。可溶元素S和Cl可能反映了入湖水量与蒸发对比情况,与湖泊盐度有关。  相似文献   
9.
Reference materials (RM) are required for quantitative analyses and their successful use is associated with the degree of homogeneity, and the traceability and confidence limits of the values established by characterisation. During the production of a RM, the chemical characterisation can only commence after it has been demonstrated that the material has the required level of homogeneity. Here we describe the preparation of BRP-1, a proposed geochemical reference material, and the results of the tests to evaluate its degree of homogeneity between and within bottles. BRP-1 is the first of two geochemical RM being produced by Brazilian institutions in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG). Two test portions of twenty bottles of BRP-1 were analysed by wavelength dispersive-XRF spectrometry and major, minor and eighteen trace elements were determined. The results show that for most of the investigated elements, the units of BRP-1 were homogeneous at conditions approximately three times more rigorous than those strived for by the test of "sufficient homogeneity". Furthermore, the within bottle homogeneity of BRP-1 was evaluated using small beam (1 mm2) synchrotron radiation XRF spectrometry and, for comparison, the USGS reference materials BCR-2 and GSP-2 were also evaluated. From our data, it has been possible to assign representative minimum masses for some major constituents (1 mg) and for some trace elements (1-13 mg), except Zr in GSP-2, for which test portions of 74 mg are recommended.  相似文献   
10.
Synchrotron high‐resolution and micro‐X‐ray fluorescence elemental mapping of two coeval coralloid speleothems from Lamalunga Cave (Italy) are complemented with petrographic, morphological and microstratigraphic studies. The importance of these speleothems relies on their direct and indirect association with a complete Neanderthal skeleton (‘Altamura Man’) found inside the cave. The coralloids grew discontinuously between 64·6 ka and the Holocene and reveal exceptionally high concentrations of Mg, Sr and Si, particularly on convex surfaces, where evaporation is more intense. The incorporation of trace elements depends on several factors including location, shape and geometrical evolution during their growth, as well as climate and environmental parameters. This resulted in calcite precipitation with Sr compositions from 100 to 1200 ppm and an average concentration of 7000 ppm Mg. An unusually high Si content (up to 16%) is possibly derived from volcanic ash transported as particulate and in solution inside the cave. The most common fabrics observed consist of non‐fluorescent elongated columnar calcite forming clean isopachous bands and fluorescent fibre‐like crystals associated with laminated, lenticular bands high in Sr, Mg and Si. Variability in Sr, Mg and Si concentrations appears to induce fabric changes in the coralloids. Elongation and lattice distortion of the crystals was found to coincide with high Mg concentrations. The transition from compact elongated to open to fibre‐like, is here interpreted as due to high concentrations of Si and Sr, which are preferentially incorporated in the speleothem at crystal boundaries and intra‐laminae. It is here inferred that coralloid fabric changes and their elemental content potentially record local rainfall variations through time, with the clean compact calcite marking high infiltration and open fibre‐like and micrite fabrics recording dry periods.  相似文献   
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