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Analyzing the spatial distribution characteristics of earthquake-induced secondary disasters based on advanced techniques is significantly important, especially in understanding the process of strong earthquakes in the Loess Pateau. Using ArcGIS, this study interprets multi-temporal high-resolution satellite images, field investigation data, and historical seismic records. Major conclusions are obtained as follows:① Landslides induced by the Haiyuan earthquake are mainly distributed in the intersection area of the end of the Haiyuan fault and Liupanshan fault, as indicated by multiple dense distribution centers; ② The landslide distribution of the Haiyuan Earthquake is determined by the distance to the fault, topographic relief, slope, lithology, and other factors. In detail, the closer the distance to the fault, the greater the density of the landslide. The greater the slope and relief of the terrain, the greater the density and the smaller the average area of a landslide. Compared with tertiary strata, Quaternary strata has a larger average area, and the density of the landslides is smaller; ③ The density curve of the death toll in the Haiyuan earthquake can be used as a reference for the distribution of co-seismic landslides. Several Haiyuan co-seismic landslides are distributed in the Tongwei landslide area; however, the major landslides here are induced by the 1718 Tongwei earthquake rather than the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake; ④ The co-seismic landslides of the Haiyuan earthquake exhibits the "slope effect" in the south-west plate of Haiyuan fault, presenting the dominant sliding direction towards the fault and epicenter; however, the "slope effect" is not evident in the northeast plate of the fault.  相似文献
2.
Although China''s historical earthquake documentation is relatively rich, it is not all based on scientific records. Therefore, the verification of the seismic information in historical records can effectively avoid exaggerating or underestimating the damage they produced. In this paper, we analyze the detailed information of the 1718 AD Tongwei M7 1/2 earthquake through field surveys, document sorting, and manual visual interpretation of UAV images. Major conclusions are listed as follows:①The low-level terraces of Weihe River between Gangu and Wushan are fully developed with flatted surface, and the residents here are mostly killed by house collapses. In addition, the disappearance of Yongning Ancient Town is not directly related to the earthquake-induced landslides; ② In fact, "Yongning Town is entirely buried by the earthquake" in the historical records describes the phenomenon that loess dust has pervaded the entire Weihe Valley. These dust grains are produced by the sliding of earthquake-induced landslides. Thus, there is no possibility that large-scale landslides have slipped over Weihe bedrock and buried Yongning Town; ③After the earthquake, survivors abandoned the ruins and selected a new site to live. They built a new town named "Pan''an (means always peaceful in the future)". earthquake-induced landslides may be the reason of burying the residential areas on valley-side slopes, while those locations inside the valley are associated with the amplification effect of ground vibration. On the basis of compiling historical seismic data, scientific methods are used to explore the real meaning of these documents, for the purpose of providing basic data for the risk evaluation of strong historical earthquakes.  相似文献
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The quantitative calculation of the volume of large earthquake-triggered landslides and related dammed lake sediments is of great significance in the study of secondary disasters and focal parameters of strong historical earthquakes. In this study, the dammed lake induced by Qishan M7 earthquake (Lingtai County, Gansu Province, Northwest China) is selected as the research object. Based on the information collected from the 4 boreholes in the dammed lake area, we further take advantage of the low-level Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and the morphology recovery method,to calculate the volume of the dammed lake and landslides, respectively. Finally, major conclusions are obtained as follows:① the AMS-14C age at the bottom of the Qiuzigou Dammed Lake sediments is 2 890±30 BP, which coincides with the 780 BC Qishan earthquake; furthermore, the Qiuzigou Landslides seem to have been triggered by the earthquake, forming an enclosed dammed lake deposition environment after the upstream sediments accumulate;② the Qiuzigou landslides are opposite-sliding landslides that have blocked the river valley; in detail, landslide volumes at the right and left banks are 235×104 m3 and 229×104 m3, respectively. The length of the dammed lake is 2.6 km, with a thickness of approximately 43 m near the landslides, and the total sedimentary volume is 573×104 m3; ③the erosion rate of Qiuzigou Landslide Dammed Lake is 0.44 mm/a, the accumulation rate is 15.05 mm/a, and the soil erosion modulus is 593 t/(km2/a), characterized as slight erosion. Quantitative research on the formation of landslides and dammed lakes from strong historical earthquakes is vital for increasing our understanding of the vibrational characteristics and surface action processes of these types of earthquakes.  相似文献
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Accurate volume calculation of each individual landslide triggered by strong historical earthquakes can help understand the characteristics of the typical earthquake-induced landslides, thus providing significant information for the modification of the focal parameters of historical earthquakes. In this study, we select one rock fall and three loess landslides triggered by the 1556 AD Huaxian M8 1/2 earthquake, compute their volumes using the low-altitude high-precision Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and landslide profile restoration methods. The results show that:① the whole influencing area of the Huangjiagou Rock Fall is approximately 3.03×105 m2 and the area of the collapsed rock accumulated at the slope foot is 3.33×104 m2, accounting for approximately 10% of the entire influencing range. However, the estimated volume of the collapsed rock is only 0.699×106 m3, indicating a rock fall with large influencing range but limited collapsed rock; ② the geological form of thethree loess landslides are preserved intactly, with volumes of 0.283×108 m3, 0.074×108 m3, and 0.377×108 m3. These important geological hazard relics reflect the strong vibrations and severe casualties in the meizoseismal area; ③ loess landslides are the key reason of the serious death toll in the hilly-gully loess area. Our new method can be used to estimate the influencing area and the actual volume of each individual landslide, and rationally evaluate the role of earthquake landslides in the disaster. In addition, quantitative research on secondary disasters triggered by strong historical earthquakes is beneficial for understanding the surface process and focal parameters of the earthquakes.  相似文献
5.
2008年10月6日西藏当雄发生MW6.3地震.本文利用震后2008年10月26日至2010年8月22日的16期ENVISAT ASAR数据,通过小基线集干涉测量、误差校正与MInTS(Multiscale InSAR Time Series)技术提取高精度的震后形变场,利用SDM(Steepest Descent Method)方法反演断层震后余滑演化过程,并分析震后余滑与同震滑动的关系.结果表明:当雄MW6.3地震的近场震后形变场主要位于断层西侧,在时间演化上具有明显的对数函数衰减规律;震后余滑主要集中于断层中南段深0~15 km区间,最大的余滑量约0.07 m,位于断层深约9.28 km处,滑动角约-103°;震后余滑引起的地震矩能量M0与矩震级MW在时间演化上具有指数函数递增规律;当剪切模量μ=32 GPa,震后665天余滑释放的地震矩能量约为1.92×1017N·m,约占同震滑动释放地震矩的4.8%,相当于矩震级MW5.46;虽然震后余滑已经延伸到断层浅部0~5 km区间,但由于余滑量相对较小,没有改变同震滑动在断层浅部区域的滑动亏损现象,这可能是2010年11月30日该区域又发生MW5.3级余震的主要原因之一.  相似文献
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