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Satellite remote sensing is shown to provide critical support for geological and structural mapping in semiarid and arid areas. In this work, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were used to clarify the geological framework of the Precambrian basement of the Iguerda Proterozoic inlier in the Moroccan Central Anti-Atlas. In this study, the interpretation of the processed digital data has been ground truthed with geological field data collected during a reconnaissance-mapping program in the Central Anti-Atlas. The Iguerda inlier offers a deeply eroded Precambrian massif dominated by a Paleoproterozoic basement composed of supracrustal metasedimentary units intruded by various Eburnian granitoids. Impressive mafic dyke swarms mainly of Proterozoic age crosscut this basement. Eburnian basement rocks are unconformably overlain by Lower Ediacaran volcanosedimentary rocks of the Ouarzazate Group and Upper Ediacaran–Lower Cambrian carbonates. The applied ASTER analyses are particularly effective in the lithological differentiation and discrimination of geological units of the Iguerda inlier. The spectral information divergence (SID) classification algorithm coupled with spectral angle mapper and maximum likelihood classification effectively discriminates between metamorphic rocks, granitoid bodies, and carbonate cover. SID classification improves geologic map accuracy with respect to the spatial distribution of plutonic bodies and metamorphic units. In addition, Paleoproterozoic granitoids have been well discriminated into separate distinct suites of porphyritic granites, granodiorites, and peraluminous leucogranite suites. This discrimination was initially identified via remote sensing analysis and later ground truthed in the field. This methodology enhances geological mapping and illustrates the potential of ASTER data to serve as a vital tool in detailed geologic mapping and exploration of well-exposed basement of arid regions, such as the Proterozoic of the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco.  相似文献
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The Saghro Group (SG) is a folded, low-grade volcano-sedimentary series up to 8 km thick that crops out within and to the north of the Pan-African suture zone in the central and eastern Anti-Atlas. Here we describe the SG of the Ougnat inliers that are exposed in the easternmost Anti-Atlas beneath the unconformable, Late Ediacaran Ouarzazate Group (OZG) volcanic rocks. The Ougnat SG mostly consists of volcaniclastic greywackes accumulated in a peritidal-to-shallow basin. The basin infilling was deformed by NNE-trending, mostly upright folds with axial-planar slaty cleavage and low-grade metamorphism. The deformed SG rocks were intruded by the ∼550 Ma Mellab hypovolcanic granodiorite. The latter also crosscuts the lowest OZG rocks that are dated to 574–571 Ma in the western Saghro region. The SG rocks that form the Siroua and Saghro inliers have an oldest age of 620–610 Ma and were folded at ∼610–580 Ma at the onset of the Cadomian orogenic events. We show that the SG rocks are similar to the “Série verte” (SV) rocks that are exposed in the Ougarta and western Hoggar east of the Pan-African suture. We infer that the SG and SV rocks accumulated in a same, continuous basin that was bounding the West African Craton to the north and the east. This strongly subsiding basin formed close to a volcanic arc and was folded during the last Pan-African synmetamorphic events. Fold orientation and age of folding differ however along the edge of the West African Craton. The orogenic greywackes that form the remnants of the SG-SV basin thus constitute a precious record of the diachronic Cadomian event s.l. along the West African Craton northern margin.  相似文献
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The Imiter inlier at the eastern Anti-Atlas chain (Morocco) hosts a world-class epithermal Ag-Hg deposit, and several occurrences of sulfide-magnetite mineralization. These occurrences are confined to transcurrent faults that cut mildly to highly potassic I- and S-type granite intrusions (e.g., Igoudrane, Bou Teglimt, Taouzzakt and Bou Fliou).In this contribution, we present new field, petrographic and microanalytical data of the Bou Fliou sulfide-magnetite mineralization in the northwestern part of the Bou Teglimt granodiorite intrusion (567?±?6Ma). Field and microscopic investigations reveal pervasive silicification and potassic alteration associated with iron oxides-rich (>10?vol %) veins, stockworks, and breccias along NE-SW faults. The ore minerals are mainly magnetite, hematite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, Ag-galena, cobaltite, and less abundant Bi-sulfosalts (i.e., cosalite, galenobistmuthite, and llilanite-gustavite). The low-titanium iron oxides (magnetite and hematite), widespread iron-rich breccia, association with crustal scale fault zone, pervasive alteration, and overprinting mineral assemblages suggest a shallow level IOCG-style mineralization. High-order splays of the major fault zone could have provided effective traps for magmatic and basinal Cu and Zn-Pb hydrothermal fluids. The ~550 Ma intrusive phases in the region could have contributed by fluid, elements or heat in a local effective blumbing. The mineralogical and ore textural criteria reflecting ore formation at a realtively shallow crustal environment, but a fluid inclusion study is needed to characterize the ore fluids and mechanism of ore deposition.  相似文献
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Aeromagnetic data of the Anti-Atlas Mountains show an important magnetic anomaly along the ‘Major Anti-Atlas Fault’, produced by different mafic and ultramafic rocks of a Neoproterozoic ophiolite complex. The magnetic modelling of Bou Azzer–El Graara ophiolitic suture shows a deep-seated anomaly through the upper continental crust corresponding to a north-dipping subduction. The polarity of the Pan-African subduction in the Anti-Atlas is therefore compatible with the contemporaneous Pan-African orogenic belts, where polarity of subduction dipped away from the West African Craton during the amalgamation of Western Gondwana. To cite this article: A. Soulaimani et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).  相似文献
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During the Late Precambrian–Early Cambrian times, the borders of the Kerdous inlier were affected by normal faults where thick conglomerates (Ouarzazate Group: PIII), grading progressively upwards into Cambrian marine sediments, were accumulated along their hanging walls. This tectonic activity persisted during the Early Cambrian and was accompanied by a magmatic activity resulting mainly in the emplacement of continental tholeiitic basalts. These tectono-sedimentary and magmatic events are related to the crustal extensional episode that affected the northwestern Gondwana margin during the opening of the Iapetus Ocean during Late Proterozoic times. To cite this article: A. Soulaimani et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).  相似文献
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