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This paper focuses on fault-related uncertainties in the subsurface, which can significantly affect the numerical simulation of physical processes. Our goal is to use dynamic data and process-based simulation to update structural uncertainty in a Bayesian inverse approach. We propose a stochastic fault model where the number and features of faults are made variable. In particular, this model samples uncertainties about connectivity between the faults. The stochastic three dimensional fault model is integrated within a stochastic inversion scheme in order to reduce uncertainties about fault characteristics and fault zone layout, by minimizing the mismatch between observed and simulated data.  相似文献
2.
Flow simulation in a reservoir can be highly impacted by upscaling errors. These errors can be reduced by using simulation grids with cells as homogeneous as possible, hence conformable to horizons and faults. In this paper, the coordinates of 3D Voronoi seeds are optimized so that Voronoi cell facets honor the structural features. These features are modeled by piecewise linear complex (PLC). The optimization minimizes a function made of two parts: (1) a barycentric function, which ensures that the cells will be of good quality by maximizing their compactness; and (2) a conformity function, which allows to minimize the volume of cells that is isolated from the Voronoi seed w.r.t., a structural feature. To determine the isolated volume, a local approximation of the structural feature inside the Voronoi cells is used to cut the cells. It improves the algorithm efficiency and robustness compared to an exact cutting procedure. This method, used jointly with an adaptive gradient solver to minimize the function, allows dealing with complex 3D geological cases. It always produces a Voronoi simulation grid with the desired number of cells.  相似文献
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Incorporating prior geological knowledge in geophysical process models often meets practical meshing challenges and raises the question of how much detail is to be included in the geometric model. We introduce a strategy to automatically repair and simplify geological maps, geological cross-sections and the associated meshes while preserving elementary consistency rules. To identify features breaking validity and/or the thin features potentially problematic when generating a mesh, we associate an exclusion zone with each model feature (horizon, fault). When these zones overlap, both the connectivity and the geometry of the geological layers are automatically modified. The output model enforces specific practical quality criteria on the model topology and geometry that facilitates the generation of a mesh with lower bounds on minimum angles and minimum local entity sizes. Our strategy is demonstrated on an invalid geological cross-section from a real-case study in the Lorraine coal basin. We further explore the impacts of the model modifications on wave propagation simulation. We show that the differences on the seismograms due to model simplifications are relatively small if the magnitude of simplifications is adapted to the physical problem parameters.  相似文献
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