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The Yarlung Zangbo suture zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of Neo‐Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and marks a major suture between the Indian plate to the south and the Lhasa terrane of Tibet to the north. The upper mantle section of the Cuobuzha ophiolite in the northern subbelt of the western YZSZ comprises mainly clinopyroxene (cpx)‐rich and depleted harzburgites. Spinels in the cpx‐harzburgites show lower Cr# values (12.6–15.1) than the spinels in the harzburgites (26.1–34.5), and the cpx‐harzburgites display higher heavy rare earth element concentrations than the depleted harzburgites. The harzburgites have subchondritic Os isotopic compositions (0.11624–0.11699), yielding Re‐depletion model ages (TRD) ages from 1.8 to 1.7 Ga, indicating that the Cubuzha mantle underwent at least one ancient melt extraction event ca. 1.8‐1.7Ga; whereas the cpx‐harzburgites have suprachondritic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.12831–0.13125) with higher Re concentrations (0.380–0.575 ppb), indicating subsequent addition of Re following the last partial melting event that occurred during mid‐ocean ridge melt evolution processes. Although these geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that both peridotite types in the ophiolite represent mid‐oceanic ridge–type upper mantle units, their melt evolution trends reflect different mantle processes. The cpx‐harzburgites formed from low‐degree partial melting of a primitive mantle source, and they were subsequently modified by melt‐rock interactions in a mid‐oceanic ridge environment. The depleted harzburgites, however, were produced by remelting of the cpx‐harzburgites, which later interacted with mid‐oceanic ridge basalt– or island‐arc tholeiite–like melts, possibly in a trench–distal backarc spreading center. Our new isotopic and geochemical data from the Cuobuzha peridotites confirm that the Neo‐Tethyan upper mantle had highly heterogeneous Os isotopic compositions as a result of multiple melt production and melt extraction events during its seafloor spreading evolution.  相似文献
2.
The Bulqiza ultmafic massif, which belongs to the eastern Mirdita ophiolite of northern Albania, is world renowned for its high‐Cr chromite resource. The high‐Cr chromitites commonly host in the mantle section, while high‐Al chromitites also present in massive dunite of the mantle‐crust transition zone (MTZ) in this massif. Chromian‐spinel in the MTZ high‐Al chromitites and MTZ dunites have much lower Cr# values [Cr/(Cr+Al)×100] (47.7–55.1 and 46.5–51.7, respectively) than those of chromian‐spinel in the high‐Cr chromitites (78.2–80.4), harzburgites (72.6–77.9) and mantle dunites (79.4–84.3). The high‐Cr chromitites are rich in IPGE relative to PPGE with 0.10–0.45 PPGE/IPGE ratios, whereas the high‐Al chromitites have higher PPGE/IPGE ratios between 1.20 and 7.80. The partial melting degrees of parental magmas for the high‐Cr chromitites are beyond the critical interval (> 25%) and thus prevented sulfide saturation and diluted Pt and Pd in melts, producing high‐Cr chromitites barren of Pt and Pd. However, the degrees for the high‐Al chromitites just enter the critical interval (20–25%) for the effective extraction of PGE from mantle sulfides, which may account for the enrichments of PPGE in high‐Al chromitites. The parental melts of the high‐Cr chromitites have Al2O3 and TiO2 contents of ∼10.6–11.4 wt.% and 0.14–0.31 wt.%, whereas the calculated Al2O3 and TiO2 for the high‐Al chromitites are ∼14.9–15.9 wt.% and 0.07–0.61 wt.%, respectively. The calculated melts in equilibrium with the high‐Cr chromitites are boninitic‐like, and those with high‐Al chromitites are MORB‐like but with hydrous, oxidized and TiO2‐poor affinities. To make a compromise between the inconsistence above, we proposed that coexistence of both types of chromitites in the Bulqiza ultramafic massif may reflect that their magma compositions transited from MORB‐like to boninitic‐like in a proto‐forearc setting during subduction initiation. Key words: Chromian‐spinel, Platinum‐group elements, high‐Cr and high‐Al chromitite, Mirdita ophiolite, Albania.  相似文献
3.
The Purang ophiolite, which crops out over an area of about 600 km2 in the western Yarlung‐Zangbo suture zone, consists chiefly of mantle peridotite, pyroxenite and gabbro. The mantle peridotites are mostly harzburgite and minor lherzolite that locally host small pods of dunite. Some pyroxenite and gabbro veins of variable size occur in the peridotites, and most of them strike NW. On the basis of their mineral chemistry podiform chromitites are divided into high‐alumina (Cr# = 20‐60) (Cr# = 100*Cr/(Cr+Al)) and high‐chromium (Cr# = 60‐80) varieties (Thayer, 1970). Typically, only one type occurs in a given peridotite massif, although some ophiolites contain several massifs which can have different chromitite compositions. However, the Purang massif contains both high chrome and high alumina chromitites within a single mafic‐ultramafic body. Seven small, lenticular bodies of chromitite ore have been found in the harzburgite, with ore textures ranging from massive to disseminated to sparsely disseminated; no nodular ore has been observed. Individual ore bodies are 2‐6 m long, 0.5‐2 m wide and strike NW, parallel to the main structure of the ophiolite. Ore bodies 1 and 6 consist of Al‐rich chromitite (Cr# = 52‐55), whereas orebodies 2, 3, 4 and 5 are Cr‐rich varieties (Cr # = 63 to 89). In addition to magnesiochromite, all of the orebodies contain minor olivine, amphibole and serpentine. Mineral structures show that the peridotites experienced plastic deformation and partial melting. On the basis of magnesiochromite and olivine/clinopyroxene compositions two stages of partial melting are identified in the Purang peridotites, an early low‐partial melting event (about 8%), and a later high‐partial melting event (about 40%). We interpret the Al‐rich chromitites as the products of early MORB magmas, whereas the Cr‐rich varieties are thought to have been generated by the later SSZ melts..  相似文献
4.
We report new δ13C ‐values data and N‐content and N‐aggregation state values for microdiamonds recovered from peridotites and chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite (Tibet) and chromitites of the Ray‐Iz ophiolite in the Polar Urals (Russia). All analyzed microdiamonds contain significant nitrogen contents (from 108 up to 589 ± 20% atomic ppm) with a consistently low aggregation state, show identical IR spectra dominated by strong absorption between 1130 cm−1 and 1344 cm−1, and hence characterize Type Ib diamond. Microdiamonds from the Luobusa peridotites have δ13C ‐PDB‐values ranging from ‐28.7‰ to ‐16.9‰, and N‐contents from 151 to 589 atomic ppm. The δ13C and N‐content values for diamonds from the Luobusa chromitites are ‐29‰ to ‐15.5‰ and 152 to 428 atomic ppm, respectively. Microdiamonds from the Ray‐Iz chromitites show values varying from ‐27.6 ‰ to ‐21.6 ‰ in δ13C and from 108 to 499 atomic ppm in N. The carbon isotopes values bear similar features with previously analyzed metamorphic diamonds from other worldwide localities, but the samples are characterized by lower N‐contents. In every respect, they are different from diamonds occurring in kimberlites and impact craters. Our samples also differ from the few synthetic diamonds; we also analyzed showing enhanced δ13C ‐variability and less advanced aggregation state than synthetic diamonds. Our newly obtained N‐aggregation state and N‐content data are consistent with diamond formation over a narrow and rather cold temperature range (i.e. <950°C), and in a short residence time (i.e. within several million years) at high temperatures in the deep mantle.  相似文献
5.
Diamonds have been discovered in mantle peridotites and chromitites of six ophiolitic massifs along the 1300 km‐long Yarlung‐Zangbo suture (Bai et al., 1993; Yang et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2015), and in the Dongqiao and Dingqing mantle peridotites of the Bangong‐Nujiang suture in the eastern Tethyan zone (Robinson et al., 2004; Xiong et al., 2018). Recently, in‐situ diamond, coesite and other UHP mineral have also been reported in the Nidar ophiolite of the western Yarlung‐Zangbo suture (Das et al., 2015, 2017). The above‐mentioned diamond‐bearing ophiolites represent remnants of the eastern Mesozoic Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. New publications show that diamonds also occur in chromitites in the Pozanti‐Karsanti ophiolite of Turkey, and in the Mirdita ophiolite of Albania in the western Tethyan zone (Lian et al., 2017; Xiong et al., 2017; Wu et al., 2018). Similar diamonds and associated minerals have also reported from Paleozoic ophiolitic chromitites of Central Asian Orogenic Belt of China and the Ray‐Iz ophiolite in the Polar Urals, Russia (Yang et al., 2015a, b; Tian et al., 2015; Huang et al, 2015). Importantly, in‐situ diamonds have been recovered in chromitites of both the Luobusa ophiolite in Tbet and the Ray‐Iz ophiolite in Russia (Yang et al., 2014, 2015a). The extensive occurrences of such ultra‐high pressure (UHP) minerals in many ophiolites suggest formation by similar geological events in different oceans and orogenic belts of different ages. Compared to diamonds from kimberlites and UHP metamorphic belts, micro‐diamonds from ophiolites present a new occurrence of diamond that requires significantly different physical and chemical conditions of formation in Earth's mantle. The forms of chromite and qingsongites (BN) indicate that ophiolitic chromitite may form at depths of >150‐380 km or even deeper in the mantle (Yang et al., 2007; Dobrthinetskaya et al., 2009). The very light C isotope composition (δ13C ‐18 to ‐28‰) of these ophiolitic diamonds and their Mn‐bearing mineral inclusions, as well as coesite and clinopyroxene lamallae in chromite grains all indicate recycling of ancient continental or oceanic crustal materials into the deep mantle (>300 km) or down to the mantle transition zone via subduction (Yang et al., 2014, 2015a; Robinson et al., 2015; Moe et al., 2018). These new observations and new data strongly suggest that micro‐diamonds and their host podiform chromitite may have formed near the transition zone in the deep mantle, and that they were then transported upward into shallow mantle depths by convection processes. The in‐situ occurrence of micro‐diamonds has been well‐demonstrated by different groups of international researchers, along with other UHP minerals in podiform chromitites and ophiolitic peridotites clearly indicate their deep mantle origin and effectively address questions of possible contamination during sample processing and analytical work. The widespread occurrence of ophiolite‐hosted diamonds and associated UHP mineral groups suggests that they may be a common feature of in‐situ oceanic mantle. The fundamental scientific question to address here is how and where these micro‐diamonds and UHP minerals first crystallized, how they were incorporated into ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites and how they were preserved during transport to the surface. Thus, diamonds and UHP minerals in ophiolites have raised new scientific problems and opened a new window for geologists to study recycling from crust to deep mantle and back to the surface.  相似文献
6.
ABSTRACT

We investigated lherzolitic peridotites in the Cretaceous Purang ophiolite along the Yarlung Zhangbo suture zone (YZSZ) in SW Tibet to constrain their mantle–melt evolution history. Coarse-grained Purang lherzolites contain orthopyroxene (Opx) and olivine (Ol) porphyroclasts with embayments filled by small olivine (Ol) neoblasts. Both clinopyroxene (Cpx) and Opx display exsolution textures represented by lamellae structures. Opx exsolution (Opx1) in clinopyroxene (Cpx1) is made of enstatite, whose compositions (Al2O3 = 3.85–4.90 wt%, CaO = <3.77 wt%, Cr2O3 = 0.85–3.82 wt%) are characteristic of abyssal peridotites. Host clinopyroxenes (Cpx1) have higher Mg#s and Na2O, with lower TiO2 and Al2O3 contents than Cpx2 exsolution lamellae in Opx, and show variable LREE patterns. Pyroxene compositions of the lherzolites indicate 10–15% partial melting of a fertile mantle protolith. P–T estimates (1.3–2.3 GPa, 745–1067°C) and the trace element chemistry of pyroxenes with exsolution textures suggest crystallization depths of ~75 km in the upper mantle, where the original pyroxenes became decomposed, forming exsolved structures. Further upwelling of lherzolites into shallow depths in the mantle resulted in crystal–plastic deformation of the exsolved pyroxenes. Combined with the occurrence of microdiamond and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mineral inclusions in chromites of the Purang peridotites, the pyroxene exsolution textures reported here confirm a multi-stage partial melting history of the Purang lherzolites and at least three discrete stages of P-T conditions in the course of their upwelling through the mantle during their intra-oceanic evolution.  相似文献
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