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1.
印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造   总被引:52,自引:3,他引:49       下载免费PDF全文
印度-亚洲碰撞是新生代地球上最为壮观的重大地质事件。碰撞及碰撞以来,青藏高原的广大地域发生了与碰撞前截然不同的变形,地貌、环境及其深部结构都发生了深刻地变化。根据青藏高原形成、周缘造山带崛起以及大量物质侧向逃逸的基本格局,作者从大陆动力学视角出发,将“印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造” 与“前碰撞大地构造”区别开来进行研究,将印度亚洲碰撞的大地构造单元划分为:青藏中央高原、冈底斯-喜马拉雅主俯冲/碰撞造山带、青藏高原周缘挤压转换造山带和侧向挤出地体群等, 其中青藏中央高原即青藏腹地,“冈底斯-喜马拉雅主俯冲/碰撞造山带”包括冈底斯“安第斯山型”俯冲造山带和“喜马拉雅山型”主碰撞造山带,青藏高原周缘挤压转换造山带包括北缘“西昆仑-阿尔金-祁连”挤压转换造山带、东缘“龙门山-锦屏山” 挤压转换造山带、东南缘“中缅”伊洛瓦底挤压转换造山带和西南缘“印-巴-阿”阿莱曼挤压转换造山带,侧向挤出地体群包括青藏高原东构造结东南部以大型走滑断裂: 鲜水河-小江、哀牢山-红河、澜沧江、嘉黎高黎贡、那邦和三盖断裂为边界的南松甘、兰坪、保山、腾冲等挤出地体群; 以及青藏高原西构造结两侧的“甜水海“、“兴都库什”、“ 喀布尔”和“阿富汗”侧向挤出地体群。本文探讨了上述各构造单元形成的主要制约因素, 例如:楔形印度小板块与亚洲大板块的碰撞以及印度大陆东西拐角的构造作用,主碰撞和斜向碰撞的影响,大型走滑与侧向挤出地体的形成关系,挤压与走滑并重的挤压转换机制对整个青藏高原和周缘造山带形成的制约,碰撞大地构造单元的特性以及与前碰撞大地构造的区别和叠置或改造的关系等等。最后,本文还基于青藏高原地幔结构探讨印度-亚洲碰撞大地构造学及青藏高原大陆动力学的意义。  相似文献
2.
The pre-pilot drillhole CCSD-PP1, Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD), with depth of 432 m, is located in the Donghai area in the southwestern Sulu terrane. The core samples are mainly comprised of paragneiss, orthogneiss and ultramafic rock with minor intercalated layers of eclogite and phengite-bearing kyanite quartzite. All analyzed paragneiss and orthogneiss samples were overprinted on amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism. Coesite and coesite-bearing ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mineral assemblages were identified by Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis as inclusions in zircons separated from paragneiss, eclogite and phengite-bearing kyanite quartzite samples. In the paragneiss samples, UHP mineral inclusion assemblages mainly consist of Coe+Omp+Grt+Phe, Coe+Jd+Phe+Ap preserved in the mantles (M) and rims (R) of zircons. These UHP mineral inclusion assemblages yield temperatures of 814–852 °C and pressures of ≥28 kbar, presenting the PT condition of UHP peak metamorphism of these country rocks. According to the mineral inclusions and cathodoluminescence images of zircons, the orthogneisses can be divided into two types: UHP (OG1) and non-UHP (OG2). In OG1 orthogneisses, low-pressure mineral inclusion assemblage, mainly consisting of Qtz+Phe+Ab+Ksp+Ap, were identified in zircon cores (C), while coesite or coesite-bearing UHP mineral inclusions were identified in the mantles (M) and rims (R) of the same zircons. These features suggest that the OG1 orthogneisses, together with the paragneisses, phengite-bearing kyanite quartzite and eclogite experienced widespread UHP metamorphism in the Sulu terrane. However, in the zircons of OG2 orthogneiss samples, no UHP mineral inclusions were found. Inclusions mainly comprised Qtz+Phe+Ap and were identified in cores (C), mantles (M) and rims (R) of OG2 zircons; the cathdoluminescence images of all analyzed zircons showed clear zonings from cores to rims. These features indicate that the OG2 orthogneisses in pre-pilot drillhole CCSD-PP1 did not experience UHP metamorphism. Therefore, we should not rule out the possibility that some orthogneisses in Sulu terrane might represent relatively low-pressure granitic intrusives emplaced after the UHP event.  相似文献
3.
The Dulan eclogite–gneiss region is located in the eastern part of the North Qaidam eclogite belt, NW China. Widespread evidence demonstrates that this region is a typical ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane. Eclogites occur as lenses or layers in both granitic and pelitic gneisses. Two distinguished sub-belts can be recognized and differ in mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry. The North Dulan Belt (NDB) has tholeiitic protoliths with high TiO2 and lower Al2O3 and MgO contents. REE patterns and trace element contents resemble those of N-type and E-type MORB. In contrast, eclogites in the South Dulan Belt (SDB) are of island arc protoliths with low TiO2, high Al2O3 and show LREE-enriched and HFSE-depleted patterns. Sm–Nd isotope analyses give isochron ages of 458–497 Ma for eclogite-facies metamorphism for the two sub-belts. The ages are similar to those of Yuka and Altun eclogites in the western extension of the North Qaidam-Altun eclogite belt. The Dulan UHP metamorphic terrane, together with several other recently recognized eclogite-bearing terrenes within the North Qaidam-Altun HP-UHP belt, constitute the key to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau. The entire UHP belt extends for more than 1000 km from the Dulan UHP terrane in the southeast to the Altun eclogite–gneiss terrane in the west. This super-belt marks an early Paleozoic continental collision zone between the Qaidam Massif and the Qilian Massif.  相似文献
4.
Lattice-preferred orientations (LPO) of olivine, diopside, enstatite and garnet from the Zhimafang garnet peridotite body in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane (China) were measured using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The peridotite was captured from a mantle wedge immediately adjacent the subducted Yangtze slab and then experienced the UHP metamorphism at 750–950 °C and 4–7 GPa. The olivine LPO is characterized by the [001] axis close to the stretching lineation and the (100) plane subparallel to the foliation, indicating the prevailing of (100) [001] slip. Enstatite LPO displays the dominance of (100) [001] slip. Diopside developed complex LPO patterns that are difficult to explain using a single slip system of (100) [001]. Garnet is almost randomly oriented due to its low volume fractions, cubic symmetry and the presence of numerous slip systems. Calculated seismic properties of the peridotite yield a maximum P-wave velocity normal to the foliation and a minimum along the foliation, with anisotropy up to 8% in strongly sheared samples. The S-wave velocity pattern is complex but the fast polarization plane generally normal to the foliation. The inferred shear sense from the olivine LPO is top-to-SE, in contrary to exhumation-induced top-to-NW thrusting recorded in the quartz LPO, implying that the olivine LPO formed at early UHP metamorphic conditions. The olivine crystals have relatively low water contents (141–475 H/106 Si), indicating a fluid-deficient environment for the LPO formation. The present study suggests that a combination of low temperature and UHP plays a much more important role than the water content to promote the activation of (100) [001] slip in olivine.  相似文献
5.
The main hole (MH), and pre-pilot holes PP1, and PP3 of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD) penetrated three different garnet peridotite bodies in the Sulu ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, which are 80 m, 120 m, and 430 m thick, respectively. The bodies occur as tectonic blocks hosted in eclogite (MH peridotite) and gneisses (PP1 and PP3 peridotites). The peridotites in the MH are garnet wehrlites, whose protoliths were ultramafic cumulates based on olivine compositions (Fo79-89) and other geochemical features. Zoned garnet and omphacite (with 4-5 wt.% Na2O) are typical metamorphic minerals in these rocks, and, along with P-T estimates based on mineral pairs, suggest that the rocks have undergone UHP metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb isotope dating of zircon from the garnet wehrlite yielded a Paleozoic protolith age (ca. 346-461 Ma), and a Mesozoic UHP metamorphic age (ca. 220-240 Ma). The peridotites in PP1 consist of interlayered garnet (Grt)-bearing and garnet-free (GF) peridotite. Both types of peridotite have depleted mantle compositions (Mg# = 90-92) and they display transitional geochemical features. The intercalated layers probably reflect variations in partial melting rather than pressure variations during metamorphism, and the garnets may have been formed by exsolution from orthopyroxene during exhumation. These peridotites were probably part of the mantle wedge above the subduction zone that produced the UHP metamorphism and thus belonged to the North China Block before its tectonic emplacement. The exhumation of the subducted Yangtze Block brought these mantle fragments to shallow crustal levels. The ultramafic rocks in PP3 are dominantly dunite with minor garnet dunite. Their high Mg# (92-93) and relatively uniform chemical compositions indicate that they are part of a depleted mantle sequence. The presence of garnet replacing spinel and enclosing pre-metamorphic minerals such as olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel suggests that these rocks have undergone progressive metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb isotope dating of zircon from these rocks yielded two age groups: 726 ± 56 Ma for relic magmatic zircon grains and 240 ± 2.7 Ma for the newly formed metamorphic zircon. The older group is similar in age to granitic intrusions within the Dabie-Sulu belt, suggesting that the PP3 garnet peridotite may record the early emplacement of the peridotite into the crust. The younger dates coincide with the age of UHP metamorphism during continent-continent collision between the Yangtze and North China Blocks, suggesting that these peridotites were subducted to depths equivalent to the coesite facies and later exhumed. Thus, the garnet peridotites in the CCSD cores include both ultramafic rocks that existed originally in the subducted plate and rocks from the mantle wedge above the subducted plate, i.e., part of the North China Block.  相似文献
6.
The Central Orogenic Belt (COB) of China is a major continental collision zone that contains extensive outcrops of deeply subducted and exhumed rocks at both the eastern and the western end of the belt. Here we report discovery of microdiamonds from both eclogites and felsic gneisses in the North Qinling zone in the central portion of the COB. This discovery demonstrates that the country rocks of continental affinity shared in the ultra‐high‐pressure metamorphic (UHPM) event and provides a bridge connecting the two previously recognized UHPM terranes, thereby establishing the existence of a UHPM belt extending more than 4000 km. Geochronological dating yields Early Palaeozoic ages in the west and Early Mesozoic ages in the east, recording two separate continental collisions overprinted within the COB. Occurrence of UHP metamorphism during recurrent continental collision here and in the Alps suggests that deep subduction of continental material during such collisions is probably common rather than exceptional, with significant implications for processes of plate tectonic reorganization and mantle mixing over time.  相似文献
7.
The ultramafic body sampled in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Hole PP3 is located in the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt near Donghai County. It is about 480 m thick, and consists chiefly of garnet peridotite, dunite and serpentinite. The principal minerals include olivine, chromium spinel, diopside, enstatite, garnet with minor secondary augite, phlogopite and amphibole. Both the olivine and orthopyroxene are highly magnesian, and the garnet is pyropic with 5.4-6.4% CaO and 0.3-3.3% Cr2O3. Two generations of clinopyroxene are present; an early diopside followed by augite. Chromium spinels are highly variable with Cr#s (100Cr / (Cr + Al)) between 51 and 89, and their compositions reflect different processes of formation, namely partial melting and eclogite, amphibole and greenschist facies metamorphism. The Mg#s (100 Mg / (Mg + Fe2+))of the spinels correlate positively with the Cr#s but negatively with oxygen fugacity. Based on the spinel compositions the ultramafic rocks originated in the shallow mantle, then subducted to depths of more than 100 km and finally exhumed to the surface. They underwent partial melting at shallow depths, mostly in the spinel facies, and were later transformed into garnet peridotites during deep subduction. All of the rocks were weakly metasomatized during exhumation and were subjected to retrograde metamorphism.  相似文献
8.
The Jurassic Bangong Lake ophiolite, NW Tibet, is a key element within the western part of the Bangong–Nujiang suture zone, which marks the boundary between the Lhasa and Qiangtang blocks. It is a tectonic mélange consisting of numerous blocks of peridotite, mafic lavas and dikes. The mantle peridotites include both clinopyroxene-bearing and clinopyroxene-free harzburgites. The Cpx-bearing harzburgite contains Al-rich spinel with low Cr#s (20–25), resembling peridotites formed in mid-ocean ridge settings. On the other hand, the Cpx-free harzburgite is highly depleted with Cr-rich spinel (Cr# = 69–73), typical of peridotites formed in subduction zone environments. Mafic rocks include lavas of N-MORB and E-MORB affinity and boninites. The N-MORB rocks consist of pillow lavas and mafic dikes, whereas the E-MORB rocks are brecciated basalts. The boninites have high SiO2 (53.2–57.9 wt%), MgO (6.5–12.5 wt%), Cr (166–752 ppm) and Ni (63–213 ppm) and low TiO2 (0.22–0.37 wt%) and Y (5.34–8.10 ppm), and are characterized by having U-shaped, chondrite-normalized REE patterns. The N-MORB and E-MORB lavas probably formed by different degrees of partial melting of primitive mantle, whereas the boninites reflect partial melting of depleted peridotite in a suprasubduction zone environment. The geochemistry of the ophiolite suggests that it is a fragment of oceanic lithosphere formed originally at a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and then trapped above an intraoceanic subduction zone (SSZ), where the mantle peridotites were modified by boninitic melts. The Bangong–Nujiang suture zone is believed to mark the boundary between two blocks within Gondwanaland rather than to separate Gondwanaland from Eurasia.  相似文献
9.
The Yarlung Zangbo suture zone (YZSZ) in southern Tibet includes the remnants of Neo‐Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and marks a major suture between the Indian plate to the south and the Lhasa terrane of Tibet to the north. The upper mantle section of the Cuobuzha ophiolite in the northern subbelt of the western YZSZ comprises mainly clinopyroxene (cpx)‐rich and depleted harzburgites. Spinels in the cpx‐harzburgites show lower Cr# values (12.6–15.1) than the spinels in the harzburgites (26.1–34.5), and the cpx‐harzburgites display higher heavy rare earth element concentrations than the depleted harzburgites. The harzburgites have subchondritic Os isotopic compositions (0.11624–0.11699), yielding Re‐depletion model ages (TRD) ages from 1.8 to 1.7 Ga, indicating that the Cubuzha mantle underwent at least one ancient melt extraction event ca. 1.8‐1.7Ga; whereas the cpx‐harzburgites have suprachondritic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.12831–0.13125) with higher Re concentrations (0.380–0.575 ppb), indicating subsequent addition of Re following the last partial melting event that occurred during mid‐ocean ridge melt evolution processes. Although these geochemical and isotopic signatures suggest that both peridotite types in the ophiolite represent mid‐oceanic ridge–type upper mantle units, their melt evolution trends reflect different mantle processes. The cpx‐harzburgites formed from low‐degree partial melting of a primitive mantle source, and they were subsequently modified by melt‐rock interactions in a mid‐oceanic ridge environment. The depleted harzburgites, however, were produced by remelting of the cpx‐harzburgites, which later interacted with mid‐oceanic ridge basalt– or island‐arc tholeiite–like melts, possibly in a trench–distal backarc spreading center. Our new isotopic and geochemical data from the Cuobuzha peridotites confirm that the Neo‐Tethyan upper mantle had highly heterogeneous Os isotopic compositions as a result of multiple melt production and melt extraction events during its seafloor spreading evolution.  相似文献
10.
He Pozanti‐Karsanti ophiolite (PKO) is one of the largest oceanic remnants in the Tauride belt, Turkey. Micro‐diamonds were recovered from the podiform chromitites, and these were investigated based on morphology, color, cathodoluminescence, nitrogen content, carbon and nitrogen isotopes, internal structure and inclusions. The diamonds recovered from the PKO are mainly mixed‐habit diamonds with sectors of different brightness under the cathodoluminescence images. The total δ13C range of the PKO diamonds ranges between −18.8 ‰ and −28.4 ‰, with a principle δ13C mode at −25 ‰. Nitrogen contents of the diamonds range from 7 to 541 μg/g with a mean value of 171 μg/g, and the δ15N values range from −19.1 ‰ to 16.6 ‰, with a δ15N mode of −9 ‰. Stacking faults and partial dislocations are commonly observed in the Transmission Electron Microscopy foils whereas inclusions are rather rare. Combinations of (Ca0.81Mn0.19)SiO3, NiMnCo‐alloy and nano‐size, quenched fluid phases were observed as inclusions in the PKO diamonds, confirming a natural origin of these diamonds. We believe that the δ13C‐depleted carbon signature of the PKO diamonds is a remnant of previously subducted crustal matter. These diamonds may have crystallized in metal‐rich melts in the asthenospheric mantle at depth below 250 km which were subsequently carried rapidly upward by asthenospheric melts/fliuds. We concluded that diamond‐bearing asthenospheric melts were likely involved in the formation of the Pozanti‐Karsanti podiform chromitite.  相似文献
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