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采用ABAQUS有限元软件建立马蹄形地铁隧道与地裂缝呈60°斜交的计算模型研究地铁运行引起的地裂缝附近地层的振动响应。计算结果表明:隧道附近的土体振动较强烈,距离隧道越远,土体的加速度幅值越小;振动响应较强烈的区域,沿隧道纵向约为120 m,沿竖直方向为隧道下方15 m,与隧道纵向垂直的水平方向上为隧道左右20 m范围;振动在与隧道纵向垂直的水平方向传播时,无地裂缝地带在隧道两侧均匀衰减,地裂缝地带在有地裂缝的一侧振动衰减较快,说明地裂缝对地铁振动在地层中的传播有较强的阻隔作用;地裂缝附近隧道下方土层的振动要比上部土层强烈,传至地表的振动加速度基本衰减为零。  相似文献
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In contrast to woody habit with secondary growth, truthful herbaceous habit lacking secondary growth is restricted to angiosperms among seed plants. Although angiosperms might have occurred as early as in the Triassic and herbaceous habit theoretically may have been well adopted by pioneer angiosperms, pre-Cretaceous herbs are missing hitherto, leaving the origin of herbs and evolution of herbaceous angiosperms mysterious. Here we report Juraherba bodae gen. et sp. nov, a whole plant herbaceous angiosperm, from the Middle Jurassic (>164 Ma) at Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China, a fossil Lagerst?tten that is worldwide famous for various fossil finds. The angiospermous affinity of Juraherba is ensured by its enclosed ovules/seeds. The plant is small but complete, with physically connected hairy root, stem, leaves, and fructifications. The Middle Jurassic age recommends Juraherba as the earliest record of herbaceous seed plants, demanding a refresh look at the evolutionary history of angiosperms.  相似文献
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