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1.
Two felsic plutons of Late Devonian (385–370 Ma) age in the Meguma Zone of southwestern Nova Scotia contain three circa 376 Ma synplutonic mafic-intermediate intrusions that collectively record progressive stages of in situ hybridisation. A 5 m wide spessartite dyke in the Port Mouton Pluton probably underwent rapid cooling and crystallisation immediately after intrusion, which heated and coarsened the adjacent tonalite. An 85 m long sheet of pillowed kersantite (also in tonalite of the Port Mouton Pluton) presumably contained residual magma after quenching and obtained K, P, Ba, Rb, more radiogenic Sr, Zr, Nb, and light REE from the tonalite during magma mingling. The third synplutonic body, a >100 m wide diorite sheet, intrudes granodiorite of the adjacent Shelburne Pluton and has a circa 45 m wide gradational contact of metaluminous hornblende-tonalite. This tonalite dominantly records magma mixing by the transfer of Ti, Mg, Fe, Ca, and V in hornblende, biotite, plagioclase, and (at least in part) apatite xenocrysts derived from dioritic pillows that were originally disaggregated in the granodiorite, probably in response to convection. Scattered data points, unusual “concave-down” variation trends for Al2O3, P2O5, and Sr, and non-hyperbolic Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics in the tonalite, apparently reflect syn- or post-mixing fractionation and accumulation of xenocrysts from residual magma. Phosphorus may have assisted diffusion of Sr, Zr, Nb, and light REE, and caused premature quenching of the hybrids at Mcleods Cove and Birchtown, during magma mingling and mixing. Received: 1 January 1996 / Accepted: 3 August 1996  相似文献
2.
We carried out a detailed study of sulphide minerals, a ubiquitous mineral group in lower crustal mafic to peraluminous granulite xenoliths from the Diavik kimberlites, to assess their use in constraining the origin and tectonothermal evolution of the deep crust, and to obtain additional data on the composition of lower crust beneath ancient continents. Sulphides are overwhelmingly pyrrhotite with minor Ni (0.7-3.9 at.%), Co (0.1-0.7 at.%), and Cu contents (0.4-3.9 at.%). Sulphide modes in mafic granulites range from 0.14 to 0.55 vol%, translating into bulk rock S contents from ∼600 to 2000 ppm, similar to S contents in other mafic igneous rocks and indicating preservation of primary igneous S contents. In mafic granulites, Re and Os abundances in sulphides range from 42.5 to 726 ppb and 3.2 to 180 ppb, respectively, whereas those in peraluminous granulites are distinctly lower (36.1-282 ppb and 1.8-7.2 ppb, respectively), suggestive of Re and Os loss to fractionating sulphides in the more evolved precursors of these rocks.The significant within-sample variability of 187Os/188Os and correlation with 187Re/188Os indicates the preservation of primary Re-Os isotope systematics and time-integrated decay of the measured 187Re. Within the large uncertainties inherent in the nature of the samples and technique, sulphides in some granulites may record major tectonothermal events in the central Slave craton spanning several billion years of evolution. Multiple generations of sulphide can occur in a single sample. These data attest to the heterogeneous composition and complex history of the Slave craton lower crust.  相似文献
3.
The Midcontinent Rift (MCR) of North America comprises a series of basaltic sheets, flows and intrusive rocks emplaced in the Lake Superior region during the Mesoproterozoic. The mafic rocks preserved on the northern flank of Lake Superior represent the older portions of the rift sequence and offer insights into the early development of the rift. New geochronological, geochemical and paleomagnetic data are presented for the dikes and sills located in and south of Thunder Bay, Ontario. Three sill suites are recognized within the study area; an earlier, spatially restricted ultramafic unit termed the Riverdale sill, the predominant Logan sills and Nipigon sills in the north of the study area. In addition three dike sets are recognized, the north-east trending Pigeon River swarm, the north-west trending Cloud River dikes and the Mt. Mollie dike. The geochemical data demonstrate that the majority of sills south of Thunder Bay are of Logan affinity and distinct from those of broadly similar age in the Nipigon Embayment to the north. The Pigeon River dikes that intrude the sills are geochemically coherent but distinct from the Logan sills and could not be feeders to the sills. The new age of 1109.2 ± 4.2 Ma for the Cloud River dike and its R polarity are consistent with published magnetostratigraphy. The Mt. Mollie dike age (1109.3 ± 6.3 Ma) indicates that it is not coeval with the spatially associated Crystal Lake gabbro as previously thought. The complexity of the dike and sill suites on the northern flank of suggests that the early phases of rifting occurred in distinct and changing stress fields prior to the main extensional rifting preserved in younger rocks to the south. The geochemistry and geochronology of the intrusions suggest a long-lived and complex magmatic history for the Midcontinent Rift.  相似文献
4.
We report seven high precision U–Pb age determinations for mafic dykes from a number of major Precambrian swarms located in the Dharwar craton, south India. These new age results define two previously unrecognized widespread Paleoproterozoic dyking events at 2221–2209 and 2181–2177 Ma, and confirm a third at 2369–2365 Ma. Three parallel E–W trending mafic dykes from the petrographically and geochemically variable Bangalore dyke swarm, the most prominent swarm in the Dharwar craton, yield indistinguishable U–Pb baddeleyite ages of 2365.4 ± 1.0, 2365.9 ± 1.5 and 2368.6 ± 1.3 Ma, indicating rapid emplacement in less than five million years. A compilation of Paleoproterozoic U–Pb ages for mafic magmatic events worldwide indicates that the 2369–2365 Ma Bangalore dyke swarm represents a previously unrecognized pulse of mafic magmatism on Earth.  相似文献
5.
Diamonds from high- and low-MgO groups of eclogite xenoliths from the Jericho kimberlite, Slave Craton, Canada were analyzed for carbon isotope compositions and nitrogen contents. Diamonds extracted from the two groups show remarkably different nitrogen abundances and δ13C values. While diamonds from high-MgO eclogites have low nitrogen contents (5-82 ppm) and extremely low δ13C values clustering at ∼−40‰, diamonds from the low-MgO eclogites have high nitrogen contents (>1200 ppm) and δ13C values from −3.5‰ to −5.3‰.Coupled cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and SIMS analysis of the Jericho diamonds provides insight into diamond growth processes. Diamonds from the high-MgO eclogites display little CL structure and generally have constant δ13C values and nitrogen contents. Some of these diamonds have secondary rims with increasing δ13C values from −40‰ to ∼−34‰, which suggests secondary diamond growth occurred from an oxidized growth medium. The extreme negative δ13C values of the high-MgO eclogite diamonds cannot be produced by Rayleigh isotopic fractionation of average mantle-derived carbon (−5‰) or carbon derived from typical organic matter (∼−25‰). However, excursions in δ13C values to −60‰ are known in the organic sedimentary record at ca. 2.7 and 2.0 Ga, such that diamonds from the high-MgO eclogites could have formed from similar organic matter brought into the Slave lithospheric mantle by subduction.SIMS analyses of a diamond from a low-MgO eclogite show an outer core with systematic rimwards increases in δ13C values coupled with decreases in nitrogen contents, and a rim with pronounced alternating growth zones. The coupled δ13C-nitrogen data suggest that the diamond precipitated during fractional crystallization from an oxidized fluid/melt from which nitrogen was progressively depleted during growth. Model calculations of the co-variation of δ13C-N yielded a partition coefficient (KN) value of 5, indicating that nitrogen is strongly compatible in diamond relative to the growth medium. δ13C values of diamond cores (−4‰) dictate the growth medium had higher δ13C values than primary mantle-derived carbon. Therefore, possible carbon sources for the low-MgO eclogite diamonds include oxidized mantle-derived (e.g. protokimberlite or carbonatite) fluids/melts that underwent some fractionation during migration or, devolatilized subducted carbonates.  相似文献
6.
A newly recognized remnant of a Paleoproterozoic Large Igneous Province has been identified in the southern Bastar craton and nearby Cuddapah basin from the adjacent Dharwar craton, India. High precision U–Pb dates of 1891.1 ± 0.9 Ma (baddeleyite) and 1883.0 ± 1.4 Ma (baddeleyite and zircon) for two SE-trending mafic dykes from the BD2 dyke swarm, southern Bastar craton, and 1885.4 ± 3.1 Ma (baddeleyite) for a mafic sill from the Cuddapah basin, indicate the existence of 1891–1883 Ma mafic magmatism that spans an area of at least 90,000 km2 in the south Indian shield.This record of 1.9 Ga mafic/ultramafic magmatism associated with concomitant intracontinental rifting and basin development preserved along much of the south-eastern margin of the south Indian shield is a widespread geologic phenomenon on Earth. Similar periods of intraplate mafic/ultramafic magmatism occur along the margin of the Superior craton in North America (1.88 Ga Molson large igneous province) and in southern Africa along the northern margin of the Kaapvaal craton (1.88–1.87 Ga dolerite sills intruding the Waterberg Group). Existing paleomagnetic data for the Molson and Waterberg 1.88 Ga large igneous provinces indicate that the Superior and Kalahari cratons were at similar paleolatitudes at 1.88 Ga but a paleocontinental reconstruction at this time involving these cratons is impeded by the lack of a robust geological pin such as a Limpopo-like 2.0 Ga deformation zone in the Superior Province. The widespread occurrence of 1.88 Ga intraplate and plate margin mafic magmatism and basin development in numerous Archean cratons worldwide likely reflects a period of global-scale mantle upwelling or enhanced mantle plume activity at this time.  相似文献
7.
8.
The early Cretaceous (Albian–Aptian) Sung Valley ultramafic–alkaline–carbonatite complex is one of several alkaline intrusions that occur in the Shillong Plateau, India. This complex comprises calcite carbonatite and closely associated ultramafic (serpentinized peridotite, pyroxenite and melilitolite) and alkaline rocks (ijolite and nepheline syenite). Field relationship and geochemical characteristics of these rocks do not support a genetic link between carbonatite and associated silicate rocks. There is geochemical evidence that pyroxenite, melilitolite and ijolite of the complex are genetically related. Stable (C and O) and radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope data clearly indicate a mantle origin for the carbonatite samples. The carbonatite Nd (+0.7 to +1.8) and Sr (+4.7 to +7.0) compositions overlap the field for Kerguelen ocean island basalts. One sample of ijolite has Nd and Sr isotopic compositions that also plot within the field for Kerguelen ocean island basalts, whereas the other silicate–carbonatite samples indicate involvement with an enriched component. These geochemical and isotopic data indicate that the rocks of the Sung Valley complex were derived from and interacted with an isotopically heterogeneous subcontinental mantle and is consistent with interaction of a mantle plume (e.g. Kerguelen plume) with lithosphere. A U–Pb perovskite age of 115.1±5.1 Ma obtained for a sample of Sung Valley ijolite also supports a temporal link to the Kerguelen plume. The observed geochemical characteristics of the carbonatite rocks indicate derivation by low-degree partial melting (0.1%) of carbonated mantle peridotite. This melt, containing a substantial amount of alkali elements, interacted with peridotite to form metasomatic clinopyroxene and olivine. This process could progressively metasomatize lherzolite to form alkaline wehrlite.  相似文献
9.
Diamond-bearing kimberlites in the Fort à la Corne region, east–central Saskatchewan, consist primarily of extra-crater pyroclastic deposits which are interstratified with Lower Cretaceous (Albian and Cenomanian) marine, marginal marine and continental sediments. Approximately 70 individual kimberlite occurrences have been documented. The Star Kimberlite, occurring at the southeastern end of the main Fort à la Corne trend, has been identified as being of economic interest, and is characterized by an excellent drill core database. Integration of multi-disciplinary data-sets has helped to refine and resolve models for emplacement of the Star Kimberlite. Detailed core logging has provided the foundation for sedimentological and volcanological studies and for construction of a regionally consistent stratigraphic and architectural framework for the kimberlite complex. Micropaleontologic and biostratigraphic analysis of selected sedimentary rocks, and U–Pb perovskite geochronology on kimberlite samples have been integrated to define periods of kimberlite emplacement. Radiometric age determination and micropaleontologic evidence support the hypothesis that multiple kimberlite eruptive phases occurred at Star. The oldest kimberlite in the Star body erupted during deposition of the predominantly continental strata of the lower Mannville Group (Cantuar Formation). Kimberlites within the Cantuar Formation include terrestrial airfall deposits as well as fluvially transported kimberlitic sandstone and conglomerate. Successive eruptive events occurred contemporaneous with deposition of the marginal marine upper Mannville Group (Pense Formation). Kimberlites within the Pense Formation consist primarily of terrestrial airfall deposits. Fine- to medium-grained cross-stratified kimberlitic (olivine-dominated) sandstone in this interval reflects reworking of airfall deposits during a regional marine transgression. The location of the source feeder vents of the Cantuar and Pense kimberlite deposits has not been identified. The youngest and volumetrically most significant eruptive events associated with the Star Kimberlite occur within the predominantly marine Lower Colorado Group (Joli Fou and Viking Formations). Kimberlite beds, which occur at several horizons within these units, consist of subaerial and marine fall deposits, the latter commonly exhibiting evidence of wave-reworking. Black shale-encased resedimented kimberlite beds, likely deposited as subaqueous debris flows and turbidites, are particularly common in the Lower Colorado Group. During its multi-eruptive history, the Star Kimberlite body is interpreted to have evolved from a feeder vent and overlying positive-relief tephra ring, into a tephra cone. Initial early Joli Fou volcanism resulted in formation of a feeder vent (200 m diameter) and tephra ring. Subsequent eruptions, dominated by subaerial deposits, partly infilled the crater and constructed a tephra cone. A late Joli Fou eruption formed a small (70 m diameter) feeder pipe slightly offset to the NW of the early Joli Fou feeder vent. Deposits from this event further infilled the crater, and were deposited on top of early Joli Fou kimberlite (proximal to the vent) and sediments of the Joli Fou Formation (distal to the vent). The shape of the tephra cone was modified during multiple marine transgression and regression cycles coeval with deposition of the Lower Colorado Group, resulting in wave-reworked kimberlite sand along the fringes of the cone and kimberlitic event deposits (tempestites, turbidites, debris flows) in more distal settings.  相似文献
10.
Sixteen kimberlite boulders were collected from three sites on the Munro and Misema River Eskers in the Kirkland Lake kimberlite field and one site on the Sharp Lake esker in the Lake Timiskaming kimberlite field. The boulders were processed for heavy-mineral concentrates from which grains of Mg-ilmenite, chromite, garnet, clinopyroxene and olivine were picked, counted and analyzed by electron microprobe. Based on relative abundances and composition of these mineral phases, the boulders could be assigned to six mineralogically different groups, five for the Kirkland Lake area and one for the Lake Timiskaming area. Their indicator mineral composition and abundances are compared to existing data for known kimberlites in both the Kirkland Lake and Lake Timiskaming areas. Six boulders from the Munro Esker form a compositionally homogeneous group (I) in which the Mg-ilmenite population is very similar to that of the A1 kimberlite, located 7–12 km N (up-ice), directly adjacent to the Munro esker in the Kirkland Lake kimberlite field. U–Pb perovskite ages of three of the group I boulders overlap with that of the A1 kimberlite. Three other boulders recovered from the same localities in the Munro Esker also show some broad similarities in Mg-ilmenite composition and age to the A1 kimberlite. However, they are sufficiently different in mineral abundances and composition from each other and from the A1 kimberlite to assign them to different groups (II–IV). Their sources could be different phases of the same kimberlite or—more likely—three different, hitherto unknown kimberlites up-ice of the sample localities along the Munro Esker in the Kirkland Lake kimberlite field. A single boulder from the Misema River esker, Kirkland Lake, has mineral compositions that do not match any of the known kimberlites from the Kirkland Lake field. This suggests another unknown kimberlite exists in the area up-ice of the Larder Lake pit along the Misema River esker. Six boulders from the Sharp Lake esker, within the Lake Timiskaming field, form a homogeneous group with distinct mineral compositions unmatched by any of the known kimberlites in the Lake Timiskaming field. U–Pb perovskite age determinations on two of these boulders support this notion. These boulders are likely derived from an unknown kimberlite source up-ice from the Seed kimberlite, 4 km NW of the Sharp Lake pit, since indicator minerals with identical compositions to those of the Sharp Lake boulders have been found in till samples collected down-ice from Seed. Based on abundance and composition of indicator minerals, most importantly Mg-ilmenite, and supported by U–Pb age dating of perovskite, we conclude that the sources of 10 of the 16 boulders must be several hitherto unknown kimberlite bodies in the Kirkland Lake and Lake Timiskaming kimberlite fields.  相似文献
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