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安庆市怀宁县马山口地区岩溶塌陷灾害是安徽省大型地质灾害点.在对该区地质环境条件及岩溶塌陷时空分布等分析的基础上,系统总结出了马山口地区岩溶塌陷的形成与分布特征:(1)马山口岩溶塌陷形成始于1987年,盛发于1988-1992年,该高发时段共产生塌陷坑39个,占全区塌陷总数的43.8%,特别是1992年,形成的塌陷坑达24个,而1993年以后年均塌陷仅为2.6个.(2)地貌上塌陷坑主要分布在地势低洼的河漫滩,其次为低丘山坡地貌;在地层岩性上,塌陷坑主要分布在三叠系下统南陵湖组、中统月山组灰岩、大理岩地层中;在水文地质上,塌陷坑主要分布于地下水的降落漏斗范围内,特别集中于地下水主要径流方向和水交替强烈的河谷及地表水与地下水联系密切地段.可溶岩地层的存在、松散覆盖层厚度小(一般在10 m以内)和地下水位频繁波动变化是马山口地区岩溶塌陷产生的必要条件,其中由于矿区疏干排水引起的地下水动力场急剧变化对岩溶塌陷的形成至关重要,是岩溶塌陷发生的主要因素.  相似文献
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河南省鹤壁市新区地热流体特征及成因分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
地热资源属于一种宝贵矿产资源,它的形成需要特定的地质构造环境。本文在分析鹤壁市新区古近系、奥陶—寒武系热储地热流体化学特征的基础上,分别对其热水进行了医疗热矿水等质量评价。利用水文地球化学方法、同位素分析方法等,对地下热水和二氧化碳气体的成因进行了分析;依据放喷试验和二氧化碳的产状对驱动喷发的机理进行了探讨。从而为合理开发利用地热流体资源提供了地质依据。  相似文献
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The Bulqiza ultmafic massif, which belongs to the eastern Mirdita ophiolite of northern Albania, is world renowned for its high‐Cr chromite resource. The high‐Cr chromitites commonly host in the mantle section, while high‐Al chromitites also present in massive dunite of the mantle‐crust transition zone (MTZ) in this massif. Chromian‐spinel in the MTZ high‐Al chromitites and MTZ dunites have much lower Cr# values [Cr/(Cr+Al)×100] (47.7–55.1 and 46.5–51.7, respectively) than those of chromian‐spinel in the high‐Cr chromitites (78.2–80.4), harzburgites (72.6–77.9) and mantle dunites (79.4–84.3). The high‐Cr chromitites are rich in IPGE relative to PPGE with 0.10–0.45 PPGE/IPGE ratios, whereas the high‐Al chromitites have higher PPGE/IPGE ratios between 1.20 and 7.80. The partial melting degrees of parental magmas for the high‐Cr chromitites are beyond the critical interval (> 25%) and thus prevented sulfide saturation and diluted Pt and Pd in melts, producing high‐Cr chromitites barren of Pt and Pd. However, the degrees for the high‐Al chromitites just enter the critical interval (20–25%) for the effective extraction of PGE from mantle sulfides, which may account for the enrichments of PPGE in high‐Al chromitites. The parental melts of the high‐Cr chromitites have Al2O3 and TiO2 contents of ∼10.6–11.4 wt.% and 0.14–0.31 wt.%, whereas the calculated Al2O3 and TiO2 for the high‐Al chromitites are ∼14.9–15.9 wt.% and 0.07–0.61 wt.%, respectively. The calculated melts in equilibrium with the high‐Cr chromitites are boninitic‐like, and those with high‐Al chromitites are MORB‐like but with hydrous, oxidized and TiO2‐poor affinities. To make a compromise between the inconsistence above, we proposed that coexistence of both types of chromitites in the Bulqiza ultramafic massif may reflect that their magma compositions transited from MORB‐like to boninitic‐like in a proto‐forearc setting during subduction initiation. Key words: Chromian‐spinel, Platinum‐group elements, high‐Cr and high‐Al chromitite, Mirdita ophiolite, Albania.  相似文献
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