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Rock physical properties, like velocity and bulk density, change as a response to compaction processes in sedimentary basins. In this study it is shown that the velocity and density in a well defined lithology, the shallow marine Etive Formation from the northern North Sea increase with depth as a function of mechanical compaction and quartz cementation. Physical properties from well logs combined with experimental compaction and petrographic analysis of core samples shows that mechanical compaction is the dominant process at shallow depth while quartz cementation dominates as temperatures are increased during burial. At shallow depths (<2000–2500 m, 70–80 °C) the log derived velocities and densities show good agreement with results from experimental compaction of loose Etive sand indicating that effective stress control compaction at these depths/temperatures. This indicates that results from experimental compaction can be used to predict reservoir properties at burial depths corresponding to mechanical compaction. A break in the velocity/depth gradient from about 2000 m correlates with the onset of incipient quartz cementation observed from petrographic data. The gradient change is caused by a rapid grain framework stiffening due to only small amounts of quartz cement at grain contacts. At temperatures higher than 70–80 °C (2000–2500 m) the velocities show a strong correlation with quartz cement amounts. Porosity reduction continues after the onset of quartz cementation showing that sandstone diagenesis is insensitive to effective stress at temperatures higher than 70–80 °C. The quartz cement is mainly sourced from dissolution at stylolites reflected by the fact that no general decrease in intergranular volume (IGV) is observed with increasing burial depth. The IGV at the end of mechanical compaction will be important for the subsequent diagenetic development. This study demonstrates that mechanical compaction and quartz cementation is fundamentally different and this needs to be taken into consideration when analyzing a potential reservoir sandstone such as the Etive Formation.  相似文献
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