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The spinel–garnet transition in Cr/Al-enriched peridotiticbulk compositions is known from experimental investigationsto occur at 20–70 kbar, within the pressure range sampledby kimberlites. We show that the Cr2O3–CaO compositionsof concentrate garnets from kimberlite have maximum Cr/Ca arrayscharacterized by Cr2O3/CaO 0·96–0·81, andinterpret the arrays as primary evidence of chromite–garnetcoexistence in Cr-rich harzburgitic or lherzolitic bulk compositionsderived from depth within the lithosphere. Under Cr-saturatedconditions on a known geotherm, each Cr/Ca array implicitlydelineates an isobar inside a garnet Cr2O3–CaO diagram.This simplification invites a graphical approach to calibratean empirical Cr/Ca-in-pyrope barometer. Carbonaceous chromite–garnetharzburgite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor kimberlite tightlybracket a graphite–diamond constraint (GDC) located atCr2O3 = 0·94CaO + 5·0 (wt %), representing a pivotalcalibration corresponding to 43 kbar on a 38 mW/m2 conductivegeotherm. Additional calibration points are established at 14,17·4 and 59·1 kbar by judiciously projecting garnetcompositions from simple-system experiments onto the same geotherm.The garnet Cr/Ca barometer is then simply formulated as follows(in wt %):
if Cr2O3 0·94CaO + 5, then P38 (kbar) = 26·9+ 3·22Cr2O3 – 3·03CaO, or
if Cr2O3 <0·94CaO + 5, then P38 (kbar) = 9·2+ 36[(Cr2O3+ 1·6)/(CaO + 7·02)].
A small correction to P38 values, applicable for 35–48mW/m2 conductive geotherms, is derived empirically by requiringconventional thermobarometry results and garnet concentratecompositions to be consistent with the presence of diamondsin the Kyle Lake kimberlite and their absence in the Zero kimberlite.We discuss application of the P38 barometer to estimate (1)real pressures in the special case where chromite–garnetcoexistence is known, (2) minimum pressures in the general casewhere Cr saturation is unknown, and (3) the maximum depth ofdepleted lithospheres, particularly those underlying Archaeancratons. A comparison with the PCr barometer of Ryan et al.(1996, Journal of Geophysical Research 101, 5611–5625)shows agreement with P38 at 55 ± 2 kbar, and 6–12%higher PCr values at lower P38. Because the PCr formulationsystematically overestimates the 43 kbar value of the GDC by2–6 kbar, we conclude that the empirical Cr/Ca-in-garnetbarometer is preferred for all situations where conductive geothermsintersect the graphite–diamond equilibrium. KEY WORDS: Cr-pyrope; chromite; P38 barometer; mantle petrology; lithosphere thickness  相似文献
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The compositional structure and thermal state of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Kalahari Craton and the surrounding mobile belts have been mapped in space and time using >3400 garnet xenocrysts from >50 kimberlites intruded over the period 520–80 Ma. The trace-element patterns of many garnets reflect the metasomatic refertilisation of originally highly depleted harzburgites and lherzolites, and much of the lateral and vertical heterogeneity observed in the SCLM within the craton is the product of such metasomatism. The most depleted, and possibly least modified, SCLM was sampled beneath the Limpopo Belt by early Paleozoic kimberlites; the SCLM beneath other parts of the craton may represent similar material modified by metasomatism during Phanerozoic time. In the SW part of the craton, the SCLM sampled by “Group 2” kimberlites (>110 Ma) is thicker, cooler and less metasomatised than that sampled by “Group 1” kimberlites (mostly ≤95 Ma) in the same area. Therefore, the extensively studied xenolith suite from the Group 1 kimberlites probably is not representative of primary Archean SCLM compositions. The relatively fertile SCLM beneath the mobile belts surrounding the craton is interpreted as largely Archean SCLM, metasomatised and mixed with younger material during Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic rifting and compression. This implies that at least some of the observed secular evolution in SCLM composition worldwide may reflect the reworking of Archean SCLM. There are strong correlations between mantle composition and the lateral variations in seismic velocity shown by detailed tomographic studies. Areas of relatively low Vp within the craton largely reflect the progressive refertilisation of the Archean root during episodes of intraplate magmatism, including the Bushveld (2 Ga) and Karroo (ca. 180 Ma) events; areas of high Vp map out the distribution of relatively less metasomatised Archean SCLM. The relatively low Vp of the SCLM beneath the mobile belts around the craton is consistent with its fertile composition. The seismic data may be used to map the lateral extent of different types of SCLM, taking into account the small lateral variations in the geotherm identified using the techniques described here.  相似文献
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