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陈尚锋  陈文  魏科 《大气科学进展》2013,30(6):1712-1724
Interannual variations in the number of winter extreme warm and cold days over eastern China (EC) and their relationship with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and E1 Nifio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were investigated using an updated temperature dataset comprising 542 Chinese stations during the period 1961- 2011. Results showed that the number of winter extreme warm (cold) days across EC experienced a significant increase (decrease) around the mid-1980s, which could be attributed to interdecadal variation of the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of winter temperature extremes in different phases of the AO and ENSO were estimated based on Generalized Extreme Value Distribution theory. Correlation analysis and the PDF technique consistently demonstrated that interannual variation of winter extreme cold days in the northern part of EC (NEC) is closely linked to the AO, while it is most strongly related to the ENSO in the southern part (SEC). However, the number of winter extreme warm days across EC has little correlation with both AO and ENSO. Furthermore, results indicated that, whether before or after the mid-1980s shift, a significant connection existed between winter extreme cold days in NEC and the AO. However, a significant connection between winter extreme cold days in SEC and the ENSO was only found after the mid-1980s shift. These results highlight the different roles of the AO and ENSO in influencing winter temperature extremes in different parts of EC and in different periods, thus providing important clues for improving short-term climate prediction for winter temperature extremes.  相似文献   
A study of coccolith assemblages from a box core from the central South Yellow Sea(SYS) was performed revealing fluctuations on their relative abundance(%) that can be related to climatic and hydrographic changes over the last 230 years(1780–2011). Total coccolith abundances ranged from 7.0 to 55.1×10~6 coccoliths·g~(-1)sediment. Although the abundance of different species varied widely throughout the core, seven taxa dominated the assemblage. Among these species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica was the most dominant species, and it showed an average percentage of 50.1%. The pattern of G. oceanica(eutrophic species) was opposite to that of the combined percentage of Braarudosphaera bigelowii and Umbilicosphaera sibogae(both oligotrophic species), indicating that in the Yellow Sea(YS), the distribution pattern of G. oceanica might be characteristic of nutrient availability.Similar patterns between G. oceanica and the Siberian High were observed on an inter-decadal time scale,indicating that the East Asian Winter Monsoon(EAWM) may be an important driver of ecological changes in the YS. When the EAWM prevails, both the Yellow Sea Coastal Current(YSCC) and Yellow Sea Warm Current(YSWC)strengthen, and the increasing nutrient availability and warmer water brought by the strengthened YSWC favor eutrophic and warm-water coccolithophore species, such as G. oceanica. This likely mechanism demonstrates that coccolith assemblages can be used as benign and reliable proxy for climate change and surface oceanography.  相似文献   
Studies on the impact of solar activity on climate system are very important in understanding global climate change. Previous studies in this field were mostly focus on temperature, wind and geopotential height. In this paper, interdecadal correlations of solar activity with Winter Snow Depth Index (WSDI) over the Tibetan Plateau, Arctic Oscillation Index (AOI) and the East Asian Winter Monsoon Index (EAWMI) are detected respectively by using Solar Radio Flux (SRF), Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Solar Sunspot Number (SSN) data and statistical methods. Arctic Oscillation and East Asian winter monsoon are typical modes of the East Asian atmospheric circulation. Research results show that on interdecadal time scale over 11-year solar cycle, the sun modulated changes of winter snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asian atmospheric circulation. At the fourth lag year, the correlation coefficient of SRF and snow depth is 0.8013 at 0.05 significance level by Monte-Carlo test method. Our study also shows that winter snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau has significant lead and lag correlations with Arctic Oscillation and the East Asian winter monsoon on long time scale. With more snow in winter, the phase of Arctic Oscillation is positive, and East Asian winter monsoon is weak, while with less snow, the parameters are reversed. An example is the winter of 2012/2013, with decreased Tibetan Plateau snow, phase of Arctic Oscillation was negative, and East Asian winter monsoon was strong.  相似文献   
西太平洋暖池(Western Pacific Warm Pool,WPWP)指位于热带太平洋中、西部(包括南海南部和苏禄海)年平均水温超过 28 ℃的广大海域。由于巨厚的表层暖水覆盖,西太平洋暖池成为全球热量和水汽交互的重要源区,对驱动温盐环流、调节全球气候变化具有重要作用。东亚冬季风(EAWM)是全球气候系统中最活跃的组成部分之一,它可能会通过寒潮侵入热带地区,引起深层对流,以此加强暖池区的对流活动和降水异常,从而影响赤道地区的潜热释放。但地质历史时期西太平洋暖池与东亚冬季风的相互作用关系尚不明确。由于东亚冬季风携带的风尘中往往包含有大颗粒的高矫顽力磁性矿物,我们可以通过沉积物中磁性矿物的组合、含量、颗粒大小和形态变化,分析不同时间尺度上气候环境变化和风尘物质的输入情况,进而反演东亚冬季风的强度变化。本文对取自热带西太平洋B10钻孔的岩心样品进行了环境磁学测试,以揭示地质历史时期西太平洋暖池沉积物环境磁学特征对东亚冬季风的响应。实验结果表明,沉积物中的主要载磁矿物为低矫顽力的磁铁矿,属于亚铁磁性矿物,并含有少量高矫顽力磁性矿物。沉积物中的磁性颗粒以准单畴(PSD)颗粒为主。高矫顽力的磁性矿物含量和细颗粒磁铁矿相对含量在冰期和间冰期呈现出显著相对变化,对东亚冬季风的变化有敏感响应:冰期沉积物中高矫顽力矿物含量增多,磁性颗粒粒径变大;间冰期沉积物中高矫顽力矿物含量降低,磁性颗粒粒径变细。在干燥、寒冷的冰期,由风尘携带而来的高矫顽力磁性矿物相对含量增加,沉积物中的磁性颗粒粒径变大,反映冰期东亚冬季风强度增大;在气候温暖湿润的间冰期,风尘的输入量较小,由风尘携带的高矫顽力磁性矿物含量相对较低,沉积物中的磁性颗粒粒径变小,反映间冰期东亚冬季风的强度减弱。  相似文献   
东亚冬季风与海温在年际尺度上的耦合关系分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
利用NCEP NCAR 1950-1999年逐月再分析资料和奇异值分解(SVD)、相关分析等统计方法.分析了东亚冬季风和印度洋太平洋海温在年际尺度上的耦合关系。结果表明,在年际变化尺度上.SVD分解出来的第1模态反映了东亚冬季风与同期太平洋海温之间的主要相互耦合关系,即强(弱)的东亚冬季风对应类似La Nina(El Nino)型的海温距平分布;超前东亚冬季风两个月左右的赤道尔太平洋正(负)海温异常对后期弱(强)东亚冬季风的遥相关影响作用最显著.而弱(强)的东亚冬季风异常则对同期及落后1个月左右的南海正(负)海温异常的强迫影响作用最直接,最显著:东亚冬季风指数与落后1个月左右的热带西太平洋海温有最好的负相关关系,而与同期的热带西印度洋海温有最显著的正相关关系。  相似文献   
使用NCEP/NCAR、英国气象局哈德莱中心(Met Office Hadley Center)Had ISST以及NOAA提供的再分析资料分析了海温、海冰及雪盖异常对20世纪90年代末我国冬季气温和东亚冬季风(EAWM)年代际跃变的外部强迫作用,同时也对比分析了20世纪90年代EAWM年代际跃变与20世纪80年代EAWM年代际跃变特征和成因的一些差异。结果表明:20世纪80年代中期EAWM的年代际变化特征主要表现为全国一致偏冷型,同时中国近海的海温也偏低;该年代际变化的主要原因来自大气内部动力过程,而海温和海冰的作用不显著。20世纪90年代末EAWM年代际变化的特征表现为东亚北方气温显著偏冷而南方偏暖的南北反相变化分布;EAWM在20世纪90年代末的年代际变化受北大西洋海温和热带太平洋海温的共同影响。北大西洋显著的异常暖海温,激发一个向下游传播的波列,使得西伯利亚高压加强,EAWM加强,从而导致我国北方气温下降;同时,秋冬季北极海冰异常偏少和秋季欧亚雪盖偏多对东亚冬季风的增强也有一定的作用。此外,热带西太平洋的暖海温异常会导致在海洋性大陆地区有异常的辐合和对流增强,引起大气环流的Gill型响应,对流西侧的异常气旋在孟加拉湾至我国西南地区出现南风异常,使得东亚南部地区温度偏高。因此,20世纪90年代末之后东亚温度呈现南暖北冷的分布特征。  相似文献   
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