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1.
通过对南太平洋劳盆地东部扩张中(ELSC)表层沉积物样品中甘油二烷基甘油四醚脂类化合物(GDGTs)的分析结果表明, 所有样品均检测出类异戊二烯 GDGTs 和支链 GDGTs。其中, 类异戊二烯 GDGTs 占总 GDGTs 的 58.1%—93.4%, 泉古菌醇(crenarchaeol)、GDGTⅠ和 GDGTⅤ为其主要组分,说明古菌对于GDGTs的相对贡献量大, 非嗜热泉古菌是最主要输入源, 受其影响, 热液活动记录难以从类异戊二烯 GDGTs 中识别。与此相比, 支链 GDGTs  相似文献
2.
基因组大小(或称C值)作为生物单倍体细胞中全套染色体的DNA总量,在一定程度上是恒定的,因而C值可以作为生物物种的一个特定参数。深海热液和冷泉为更好地理解C值与不同环境之间的关系提供了一个特征性的模型。本文采用流式细胞术,测定了来自热液和冷泉环境中的10种深海无脊椎动物的C值,其分布范围从0.87 pg到12.28 pg,其中,相比于软体动物和多毛类,甲壳生物基因组大小及变异均较大。对比热液和冷泉两个群落中共有种(深海偏顶蛤Bathymodiolus platifrons、柯氏潜铠虾Shinkaia crosnieri以及长角阿尔文虾Alvinocaris longirostris)的基因组大小,发现C值差异并不显著。同时,综合已有的数据,对深海化能极端环境与其他环境条件下的物种C值进行对比分析,结果显示深海化能极端环境下生物的基因组大小并没有发现明确的变化趋势。  相似文献
3.
Spatial distribution, diversity, and composition of bacterial communities within the shallow sub-seafloor at the deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific Ocean, were investigated. Fluids were sampled from four boreholes in this area. Each borehole was located near or away from active vents, the distance ranging 2–40 m from active vents. In addition, fluids discharging from a natural vent and ambient seawater were sampled in this area. We extracted DNA from each sample, amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR, cloned the PCR products and sequenced. The total number of clones analyzed was 348. Most of the detected phylotypes were affiliated with the phylum Proteobacteria, of which the detection frequency in each clone library ranged from 84.6% to 100%. The bacterial community diversity and composition were different between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, between fluids from the boreholes and the vent, and even among fluids from each borehole. The relative abundances of the phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were significantly different among fluids from each borehole. The phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira and Alcanivorax were detected in all of the boreholes and vent samples. Our findings provide insights into bacterial communities in the shallow sub-seafloor environments at active deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields.  相似文献
4.
Whilst the fauna inhabiting hydrothermal vent structures in the Atlantic Ocean is reasonably well known, less is understood about the spatial distributions of the fauna in relation to abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, a major active hydrothermal edifice (Eiffel Tower, at 1690 m depth) on the Lucky Strike vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)) was investigated. Video transects were carried out by ROV Victor 6000 and complete image coverage was acquired. Four distinct assemblages, ranging from dense larger-sized Bathymodiolus mussel beds to smaller-sized mussel clumps and alvinocaridid shrimps, and two types of substrata were defined based on high definition photographs and video imagery. To evaluate spatial variation, faunal distribution was mapped in three dimensions. A high degree of patchiness characterizes this 11 m high sulfide structure. The differences observed in assemblage and substratum distribution were related to habitat characteristics (fluid exits, depth and structure orientation). Gradients in community structure were observed, which coincided with an increasing distance from the fluid exits. A biological zonation model for the Eiffel Tower edifice was created in which faunal composition and distribution can be visually explained by the presence/absence of fluid exits.  相似文献
5.
Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high-frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/s at the substratum level, in low-temperature (4.5–16.4 °C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate the flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.  相似文献
6.
Hydrothermal vent environments are characterized by large gradients of toxic chemicals and high temperatures, which play a significant role in defining species’ distributions. We used high-resolution imagery and spatially explicit in-situ physico-chemical measurements analyzed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) in order to characterize the spatial relations among different groups of megafauna, temperature, and chemistry within two discrete vent communities (40 and 50 m2) on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC). Chemical (sulfide and O2 concentrations) and temperature data were obtained from approximately 75 different locations within each community using in-situ instruments. All data were integrated into a GIS, which served as a visualization tool and enabled the data to be analyzed in a spatial context. Our results confirm the importance of abiotic variables in defining the distributions of some fauna and elucidate several biological associations that are consistent between the two communities. The provannid snail, Alviniconcha spp., appears to actively avoid temperatures above 32–46 °C and/or sulfide concentrations exceeding approximately 260 μM. Slightly higher average sulfide concentrations and temperatures were measured among aggregations of Ifremeria nautilei compared to aggregations of the mussel Bathymodiolus brevior; however, the presence of mixed aggregations of the two species indicates an overlap in requirements. The brachyuran crab, Austinograea spp., was consistently observed directly on symbiont-containing species, particularly Alviniconcha spp. The solitary snail, Eosipho desbruyeresi, was rarely observed on biological substrata, but was often (60% of its population at the most active site) within 5 cm of symbiont-containing fauna, indicating a tolerance and preference for proximity to areas of high productivity. Densities and coverage of species differed substantially between the two communities despite high species overlap. Symbiont-containing species covered much larger areas at the more hydrothermally active site, ABE1, while shrimp and anemones occurred in relatively higher densities within the less-active site, TM1. This is the first study to thoroughly characterize realized distributions of megafauna at vent sites along the ELSC.  相似文献
7.
采用MMJHS寡营养培养基从印度洋深海热液区沉积物和热液硫化物中分离获得16株细菌,通过16S rDNA序列比对和生理生化分析,对它们进行了鉴定并构建了系统发育树.结果表明,12株细菌属于γ-变型菌(γ-Gammaproteobacteria),其中6株属于盐单胞菌属(Halomonas),4株属于嗜冷杆菌属(Psychrobacter),2株属于食碱菌属(Alcanivorax);其余4株属于芽孢杆菌(Bacillus),其中1株为地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis).分离获得的16株细菌中,4株为革兰氏阳性细菌,12株为革兰氏阴性细菌;H2S反应、吲哚测定反应、M.R和V-P均呈阴性.本研究为深入认识和开发利用深海热液区微生物资源奠定了基础.  相似文献
8.
The approach to determine working frequencies of acoustic in-situ detector for seafloor hydrothermal fluid is presented. Based on the research of deep-sea noise and the sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker hydrothermal vents, and on the hydrothermal-vent animal hearing ranges, coupled with influences of suspended particles of hydrothermal on acoustic attenuation under different frequencies, the optimal frequency range for detection of acoustical signal near black smokers is determined. The optimal frequencies providing the maximum ratio of receiver signal to background noise are obtained. We have developed a laboratory experimental setup for the optimal frequencies selection. In particular, we evaluated time-of-flight performance with respect to the source signal parameters of center frequency and bandwidth. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our approach. Current results indicate that individual transducers operated in the range of 18 ~ 25 kHz are immune to most interfering sounds and suitable for our system.  相似文献
9.
The turbulent mixing of hydrothermal hot fluid with cold seawater creates large chemical gradients at a small spatial scale that may induce variable physiological and biochemical adaptations within the vent fauna. The adaptation to such a variable environment by the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus relies on a dual symbiosis hosted in the gills, and digestion of particulate organic matter. The surrounding environment not only provides the necessary energy sources and suspended organic particles for the vent mussel nutrition, but also potentially toxic compounds such as metals. Our main goal was to see if there is a relation between metal accumulation in mussel organs and the chemical characteristics of their close environment. Mussels were collected at six locations in a cold part of the Eiffel Tower fluid-seawater mixing zone, characterized by distinct chemical compositions. Metals (Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn) and metallothioneins were quantified in the gills and digestive gland. The physiological condition of the sampled mussels was also evaluated using tissues and gill indices. Our study indicates that the accumulation of metals in B. azoricus is related to their spatial distribution and linked to fine scale environmental conditions that influence the physiological status of the organism.  相似文献
10.
介绍了利用声学法测量深海热液速度场的基本原理。利用往返飞渡时间差与流场速度的关系,应用反问题求解技术重建测量区域的速度场。应用最小二乘法对两种典型的热液口速度场模型进行了仿真重建, 分析了换能器数量、实验测量误差以及换能器的布放对重建结果的影响, 并对重建结果进行了流量分析。仿真重建的绝对误差、相对误差以及流量分析结果表明, 最小二乘法具有较高重建精度, 增加声学换能器及细化网格可提高重建精度, 换能器对称分布时具有最优重建结果。最后对声学法深海热液温度场速度场测量系统进行了介绍和说明。深海热液速度场的测量重建可为热液热通量的测量奠定基础。  相似文献
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