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1.
发展地理学视角下中国多维贫困测度及时空交互特征   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
金贵  邓祥征  董寅  吴锋 《地理学报》2020,75(8):1633-1646
探索贫困监测评估指标体系及区域间贫困时空交互动态特征对当前中国可持续减贫研究具有重要意义。基于发展地理学视角,引入面板向量自回归(PVAR)模型并结合人类发展分析路径与SDGs全球指标框架识别影响中国贫困的致贫和减贫因素,以此测度多维贫困指数,进而采用探索性时空数据分析(ESTDA)方法揭示多维贫困的时空交互特征。结果表明:① 中国当前贫困监测评估的致贫因子包括农作物受灾比和社会总抚养比,减贫因子则涉及人均GDP、人均社会保障支出、人均公共卫生支出、每万人医院数、新型农村合作医疗参合率、植被覆盖率、人均教育支出、高校数量、人均科学研究与试验发展支出、人均文化事业经费。② 2007—2017年中国省域收入贫困、健康贫困、文化贫困及多维贫困状况得到显著改善,全国综合贫困程度年均下降5.67%,部分省域的不同维度贫困内部出现差异化。③ 研究期内省域间多维贫困局域空间格局表现为较强的空间动态性,并呈现由东部向中、西部增大的变化态势;省域间多维贫困指数随时间演变呈现强的空间依赖关系,形成以西北和东北为高值区向四周递减的变化格局。④ 邻接省域多维贫困交互的时空网络以负向关联为主,仅有陕西与河南、陕西与宁夏、青海与甘肃、湖北与安徽、四川与贵州、海南与广东形成空间上较强的减贫协同关系。研究成果对当前中国精准扶贫战略实施尤其是2020年后预防返贫具有重要的参考价值。  相似文献   
2.
基于BDS的混合动力船舶节能研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
提出一种基于北斗卫星导航系统(BDS)的油电混合动力推进系统,柴油机和电动机采取PTH驱动方式,采用燃油和电能混合提供推进动力,可以依据BDS导航的航行区域以及航行速度选择不同动力源输出.经过燃油经济性和效益分析,与传统推进系统相比,应用基于BDS的混合动力推进系统,公务船运营成本降低26%,增加的初始建造投资成本3年内可以收回;金枪鱼延绳钓船综合节油15%~20%,通过节油方式可在4年内收回初始建造投资成本.基于BDS的混合动力系统可以增加推进冗余度,提高船舶安全性,具有良好的节能减排和节约运营成本的效果.  相似文献   
3.
In automated remote sensing based image analysis, it is important to consider the multiple features of a certain pixel, such as the spectral signature, morphological property, and shape feature, in both the spatial and spectral domains, to improve the classification accuracy. Therefore, it is essential to consider the complementary properties of the different features and combine them in order to obtain an accurate classification rate. In this paper, we introduce a modified stochastic neighbor embedding (MSNE) algorithm for multiple features dimension reduction (DR) under a probability preserving projection framework. For each feature, a probability distribution is constructed based on t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), and we then alternately solve t-SNE and learn the optimal combination coefficients for different features in the proposed multiple features DR optimization. Compared with conventional remote sensing image DR strategies, the suggested algorithm utilizes both the spatial and spectral features of a pixel to achieve a physically meaningful low-dimensional feature representation for the subsequent classification, by automatically learning a combination coefficient for each feature. The classification results using hyperspectral remote sensing images (HSI) show that MSNE can effectively improve RS image classification performance.  相似文献   
4.
王世霞  朱祥坤 《地质学报》2013,87(9):1461-1468
本文对广东湛江湖光岩地区厚度分别为4 m和7 m的两个不同喷发时代玄武岩形成的风化壳样品进行Fe同位素分析,分析结果显示:厚度4m风化壳样品Fe同位素组成δ57Fe范围为0.17‰~0.57‰;厚度7 m风化壳样品Fe同位素组成δ57Fe范围为0.20‰~0.68‰,相对于标准物质IRMM-014,不同深度风化壳样品均显示Fe的重同位素富集.两风化壳剖面自下而上,随风化程度增大,风化壳样品中Fe同位素分馏程度也呈现逐渐增大的趋势,表明风化壳样品中Fe的重同位素富集趋势与风化壳的发育程度正相关,风化壳土壤中Fe同位素组成是反映土壤风化程度的指标.另一方面,风化过程可将地球外部圈层(岩石圈、水圈、生物圈)有机结合起来,风化壳土壤Fe同位素组成变化是表生植物和水淋滤共同作用的结果,对化学风化过程中Fe同位素研究,将会极大地补充表生过程中同位素地球化学的知识,同时Fe同位素可作为表生过程中物质的循环、环境的变化等过程中有力的示踪/指示技术手段加以应用.  相似文献   
5.
In order to investigate the response of authigenic minerals to gas hydrate geo-systems, the biogeochemical processes and its induced mineralization were predicted by employing the comprehensive reactive transport modeling approach. Based on the available data extracted from the northern continental slope area of the South China Sea, a 1-D vertical column model was developed. Three cases with different upward methane flux rates and three cases with different mineral compositions, i.e., a total of six cases were designed to investigate the effects of variations in the depth of sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) and in the mineral composition on the formation of authigenic minerals. The simulation results indicate that the SMTZ depth influenced by both the upward methane flux rate and the initial composition played an important role in the formation of authigenic minerals. The AOM reaction is intensive at the interface, and the precipitation amount of calcite is large, which is mainly controlled by AOM. When the methane leakage rate is 20 times higher than the base case, aragonite starts to precipitate. During the simulation, oligoclase, k-feldspar, smectite-Na, smectite-Ca, chlorite dissolved. Our study specific to this area as a starting point may provide a quantitative approach for investigating carbonate and pyrite formation in hydrate-bearing sediments accounting for methane oxidation and sulfate reduction. The method presented here and the model built in this study can be used for other sites with similar conditions. In addition, this study may serve as an indication for the potential natural gas hydrate reservoir in depth, and is also significant for marine carbon and sulfur cycle.  相似文献   
6.
内蒙古赤峰市阿根他拉铁矿是一个可以小规模开采的铁矿与钠长石矿。铁矿所赋存的岩体为原生钠长斑岩,其可能由深部的花岗闪长岩岩浆演化而来。铁矿化可分为两个阶段,第一阶段为黑云母/绿泥石—石英—磁铁矿阶段,为本区主要的铁矿化阶段,形成网脉状—浸染状的磁铁矿矿石。该阶段成矿岩体为斑岩、网脉状矿化、伴生矿化组合与斑岩型矿床可类比及磁铁矿的(Ca+Al+Mn)—(Ti+V)图解位于斑岩型矿床中,表明该阶段具有类似于斑岩型矿床的特征。第二阶段为绿帘石—磁铁矿/赤铁矿阶段,形成可达工业品位的团块状磁铁矿/赤铁矿矿石。该阶段类似于矽卡岩型铁矿的团块状矿石,及磁铁矿的(Ca+Al+Mn)—(Ti+V)图解位于矽卡岩型铁铜矿床中,表明该阶段具有类似于矽卡岩型铁矿床的特征。将如上与钠长斑岩有关,前期表现为类似斑岩型矿床特征,后期表现为类似矽卡岩型铁矿床特征的铁矿,称为钠长斑岩型铁矿。这类铁矿应注重与绿帘石伴生的团块状铁矿的寻找。对比研究表明,钠长斑岩型铁矿明显有别于长江中下游的玢岩铁矿。  相似文献   
7.
The use of multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in brackish aquifers can significantly improve the recovery efficiency (RE) of unmixed injected water. The water quality changes by reactive transport processes in a field MPPW-ASR system and their impact on RE were analyzed. The oxic freshwater injected in the deepest of four wells was continuously enriched with sodium (Na+) and other dominant cations from the brackish groundwater due to cation exchange by repeating cycles of ‘freshening’. During recovery periods, the breakthrough of Na+ was retarded in the deeper and central parts of the aquifer by ‘salinization’. Cation exchange can therefore either increase or decrease the RE of MPPW-ASR compared to the RE based on conservative Cl, depending on the maximum limits set for Na+, the aquifer’s cation exchange capacity, and the native groundwater and injected water composition. Dissolution of Fe and Mn-containing carbonates was stimulated by acidifying oxidation reactions, involving adsorbed Fe2+ and Mn2+ and pyrite in the pyrite-rich deeper aquifer sections. Fe2+ and Mn2+ remained mobile in anoxic water upon approaching the recovery proximal zone, where Fe2+ precipitated via MnO2 reduction, resulting in a dominating Mn2+ contamination. Recovery of Mn2+ and Fe2+ was counteracted by frequent injections of oxygen-rich water via the recovering well to form Fe and Mn-precipitates and increase sorption. The MPPW-ASR strategy exposes a much larger part of the injected water to the deeper geochemical units first, which may therefore control the mobilization of undesired elements during MPPW-ASR, rather than the average geochemical composition of the target aquifer.  相似文献   
8.
9.
Sulphate reduction is a key reaction to remove acidity from water bodies affected by acid mine drainage. In this study, 35SSO42− reduction rates determined in sediments from a variety of acidic lignite pit lakes have been compiled. The rates decreased with pH and are strongly dependent on carbon substrate. The rates were fitted to a Monod model adapted to the specific conditions of acidic pit lakes (APL) sediments: i) sulphate reduction rate is independent from sulphate concentration due to the high concentration typically observed in APL systems (10–30 mM), ii) the observed pH dependency of sulphate reduction was accounted for by an inhibition function Finihibt which considers the occurrence of low cell numbers of sulphate reducing bacteria at pH values < 4.75. Simulated steady-state sulphate reduction rates are predicting measured rates at carbon substrate concentrations of <10 μM. Estimated steady-state reaction time scales range between 2.4 h at pH 7 and 41 h at pH 3 at a carbon half-saturation constant of KC−S = 100 μM and are increasing with increasing KC−S values. Time scales at low pH are too long to allow for significant generation of alkalinity during the time of residence of groundwater passing through the top and hence most reactive zone of APL sediments which has important implications for the remediation of acidic pit lakes.  相似文献   
10.
钟姑地区位于宁芜中生代火山岩盆地南段,已发现有白象山铁矿等多个大型铁矿,是长江中下游成矿带以玢岩型铁矿为主的矿集区。本文以钟姑地区实测岩石物性参数为桥梁,以实测重磁数据为基础,分析了该区白象山铁矿、钟九铁矿和云楼铁矿的重磁场分布特征,并根据典型矿区已知地质条件,运用成熟的2.5D重磁联合反演技术进行计算,从定量角度认识铁矿体深部发育形态、位置与重磁异常之间对应关系,建立钟姑地区白象山铁矿等典型矿床的重磁找矿模式,为该区进一步找矿突破提供地球物理场信息。  相似文献   
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