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1.
Glaciers and snow cover are important constituents of the surface of the Tibetan Plateau. The responses of these phenomena to global environmental changes are sensitive, rapid and intensive due to the high altitudes and arid cold climate of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on multisource remote sensing data, including Landsat images, MOD10A2 snow product, ICESat, Cryosat-2 altimetry data and long-term ground climate observations, we analysed the dynamic changes of glaciers, snow melting and lake in the Paiku Co basin using extraction methods for glaciers and lake, the degree-day model and the ice and lake volume method. The interaction among the climate, ice-snow and the hydrological elements in Paiku Co is revealed. From 2000 to 2018, the basin tended to be drier, and rainfall decreased at a rate of −3.07 mm/a. The seasonal temperature difference in the basin increased, the maximum temperature increased at a rate of 0.02°C/a and the minimum temperature decreased at a rate of −0.06°C/a, which accelerated the melting from glaciers and snow at rates of 0.55 × 107 m3/a and 0.29 × 107 m3/a, respectively. The rate of contribution to the lake from rainfall, snow and glacier melted water was 55.6, 27.7 and 16.7%, respectively. In the past 18 years, the warmer and drier climate has caused the lake to shrink. The water level of the lake continued to decline at a rate of −0.02 m/a, and the lake water volume decreased by 4.85 × 108 m3 at a rate of −0.27 × 108 m3/a from 2000 to 2018. This evaluation is important for understanding how the snow and ice melting in the central Himalayas affect the regional water cycle.  相似文献   
2.
Urban development significantly alters the landscape by introducing widespread impervious surfaces, which quickly convey surface run‐off to streams via stormwater sewer networks, resulting in “flashy” hydrological responses. Here, we present the inadequacies of using raster‐based digital elevation models and flow‐direction algorithms to delineate large and highly urbanized watersheds and propose an alternative approach that accounts for the influence of anthropogenically modified land cover. We use a semi‐automated approach that incorporates conventional drainage networks into overland flow paths and define the maximal run‐off contributing area. In this approach, stormwater pipes are clustered according to their slope attributes, which define flow direction. Land areas drained by each cluster and contributing (or exporting) flow to a topographically delineated catchment were determined. These land masses were subsequently added or removed from the catchment, modifying both the shape and the size. Our results in a highly urbanized Toronto, Canada, area watershed indicate a moderate net increase in the directly connected watershed area by 3% relative to a topographically forced method; however, differences across three smaller scale subcatchments are greater. Compared to topographic delineation, the directly connected watershed areas of both the upper and middle subcatchments decrease by 5% and 8%, respectively, whereas the lower subcatchment area increases by 15%. This is directly related to subsurface storm sewer pipes that cross topographic boundaries. When directly connected subcatchment area is plotted against total streamflow and flashiness indices using this method, the coefficients of variation are greater (0.93 to 0.97) compared to the use of digital elevation model‐derived subcatchment areas (0.78 to 0.85). The accurate identification of watershed and subcatchment boundaries should incorporate ancillary data such as stormwater sewer networks and retention basin drainage areas to reduce water budget errors in urban systems.  相似文献   
3.
景观生态分类与制图浅议   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
本文在查阅分析大量文献和前人研究的基础上 ,对目前景观生态分类和景观制图作了详细的对比分析 ,认为景观分类需要结合实际区域现状 ,采用逐级分类的方法 ;同时利用 ETM遥感影像为数据源 ,以天山北麓为示范区.研制其土地利用土地覆盖变化的景观类型图。  相似文献   
4.
中国1∶100万景观生态制图设计   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
中国1∶100万景观生态图系借鉴国内外传统景观制图方法和制图规范,在遥感、地理信息系统先进技术的支持下,设计研制其制图方法、制图内容、样图和技术流程,同时提出初步的景观分类系统,为今后编制中国1∶100万景观生态图奠定基础。  相似文献   
5.
6.
Extraterrestrial geography has become a reality, as we move from Earth's moon to the planets. A broad-scale regional physiography is being established on twenty planets and satellites through remote sensing techniques. Spacecraft images yield most of the information on Solar System landscapes. Topographic measurements are extracted by monoscopic image-processing, stereophotogrammetry, and radar analysis. Invisible parts of the spectrum furnish non-topographic data.  相似文献   
7.
The crop estimates by remote sensing, developing quickly in recent decades, is a up-to-date technique. Regionalization for large area crop estimates by remote sensing, a special applied regionalization, is the foundation of crop estimates in a large area by remote sensing. According to the actual demands of wheat yield estimation by remote sensing and wheat agroclimatic demarcation of China, this paper first puts forward some principles upheld in this regionalization and analyses its main bases. Secondly, it works out the classificatory schemes about the optimum temporal for estimating wheat yield by remote sensing, information sources of space remote sensing and landuse structure in China. Finally, According to the regionalization indices, this study divides the wheat plantable region of China into 14 regions of crop yield estimates and 31 subregions of crop yield estimates.  相似文献   
8.
IntroductionThe radiance leaving the earth-atmosphere sys-tem which can be sensed by a satellite borne ra-diometer is the sum of radiation emission fromtheearth surface and each atmospheric level that aretransmittedtothe top of the atmosphere.The radia-tion emissionfromthe earthsurface andthe radianceof each atmospheric level can be separated fromtheradiance at the top the atmospheric level a satellitemeasured.Thus,the earth surface parameters willbe retrieved from the surface radiance after a…  相似文献   
9.
Images from satellite platforms are a valid aid in order to obtain distributed information about hydrological surface states and parameters needed in calibration and validation of the water balance and flood forecasting. Remotely sensed data are easily available on large areas and with a frequency compatible with land cover changes. In this paper, remotely sensed images from different types of sensor have been utilized as a support to the calibration of the distributed hydrological model MOBIDIC, currently used in the experimental system of flood forecasting of the Arno River Basin Authority. Six radar images from ERS‐2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors (three for summer 2002 and three for spring–summer 2003) have been utilized and a relationship between soil saturation indexes and backscatter coefficient from SAR images has been investigated. Analysis has been performed only on pixels with meagre or no vegetation cover, in order to legitimize the assumption that water content of the soil is the main variable that influences the backscatter coefficient. Such pixels have been obtained by considering vegetation indexes (NDVI) and land cover maps produced by optical sensors (Landsat‐ETM). In order to calibrate the soil moisture model based on information provided by SAR images, an optimization algorithm has been utilized to minimize the regression error between saturation indexes from model and SAR data and error between measured and modelled discharge flows. Utilizing this procedure, model parameters that rule soil moisture fluxes have been calibrated, obtaining not only a good match with remotely sensed data, but also an enhancement of model performance in flow prediction with respect to a previous calibration with river discharge data only. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
通过对藏北高原西北部结则茶卡湖泊及其沿岸地质地貌调查,发现其为一个富含硼、锂、钾、锶的封闭型盐湖,沿岸海拔4 850 m拔湖325 m有一条明显的高位湖岸线,该湖岸线到湖面之间有六级湖积阶地发育,六级以上阶地保存零星。沿湖岸不同高度上的湖积物U系年龄分别为(14.2±1.2)ka BP(T2)、(38.0±3.5)ka BP(T4)和(41.6±3.2)ka BP(T5)。湖面下降的幅度是藏北高原迄今所知最大。根据湖面平均下降速度推算高位湖岸线和高位湖积层的形成年龄在(120~90)ka BP,与东部的纳木错和西部的甜水海基本一致,说明藏北高原在晚更新世初期有一个明显的泛湖期。大约100 ka BP结则茶卡湖面开始下降,晚更新世以来湖泊演化是在封闭体系干旱环境下进行的,盐湖形成于14 ka BP左右,藏北高原在晚更新世以来气候变化可能为自西向东逐渐变为干寒。  相似文献   
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