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Ground deformation studies based on Differential GPS (DGPS) and Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) analyses have been conducted in the seismically active area of the Central Ionian Islands. Local GPS networks were installed in Cephallonia (2001) and Zakynthos (2005). The Cephallonian network has been remeasured five times and Zakynthos' once as of July 2006. The studies have yielded detailed information regarding both local and regional deformations that are occurring in the area.For Lefkas Island, DInSAR analysis (March to September 2003) revealed 56 mm of uplift in the central and western parts and is attributed to the August 2003 earthquake (Mw = 6.3) that occurred offshore to the west. Synthetic DInSAR modelling of the magnitude and extent of deformation is consistent with the seismologically deduced parameters for the ruptured segment along the Lefkas Transform Fault. Subsidence (< 28 mm) along the northern part of the island is attributed to local conditions unrelated to the earthquake. For Zakynthos Island, large-magnitude earthquakes that occurred offshore to the south in October 2005 and April 2006 most likely contributed to the observed deformation as deduced from DGPS measurements for an encompassing period (August 2005 to July 2006). The largest amount of horizontal deformation occurred in the south, where its western part moved in a W–NW direction, while the eastern part moved towards the NE, with magnitudes ranging from 15 to 26 mm. The southern part of the island uplifted a maximum of 65 mm whereas the north subsided from 12 to 28 mm.For Cephallonia Island, DInSAR analysis (1995 to 1998) indicated ground deformation up to 28 mm located in small sections of the island. Further interferometric analysis for the period 2003 to 2004, encompassing the occurrence of the Lefkas earthquake in August 2003, indicated 28 mm of uplift in the northern part, while during the next two years (2004 to 2005), further uplift of at least 56 mm had taken place at the western and northern part of the island.DGPS measurements for the period 2001 to 2006 revealed a clockwise rotation of the island with respect to a centrally located station on Aenos Mt. The horizontal component of deformation generally ranged from 6 to 34 mm, with the largest values at the western and northern parts of the island. Considering the vertical deformation, two periods are distinguished. The first one (2001 to 2003) is consistent with anticipated motions associated with the main geological and tectonic features of the island. The second one (2003 to 2006) has been tentatively attributed to dilatancy in which relatively small uplift (20–40 mm) occurred along the southern and southeastern parts of the island, while larger magnitudes (> 50 mm) happened at the western part (Paliki Peninsula). These large magnitudes of uplift over an extended area (> 50 km), in conjunction with an accelerated Benioff strain determined from the analysis of the seismicity in the broader region, are consistent with dilatancy. This effect commenced some time after 2003 and is probably centered in the area between Zakynthos and Cephallonia. If this interpretation is correct, it may foreshadow the occurrence of a very strong earthquake(s) sometime during 2007 to 2008 in the above designated region.  相似文献
Ground subsidence triggered by salt mining from deposits located beneath the city of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) is one of the major dangers acting on a very densely urbanized area since 1950, when the salt deposit exploitation by means of boreholes began. As demonstrated in this paper, subsidence induced several hazard factors such as severe ground deformations, the arising of deep and superficial fractures and a very fast water table rise, connected with the brine extraction, now affecting several districts. The above mentioned factors have been quantified by the use of geomatic methodologies, including field surveys and analysis of geographical data. In order to estimate the historical sinking rates, authors processed the large (and never before processed) amount of topographical data collected during two periods; from 1956 to 1991, and from 1992 to 2003, with only poor data collected. Afterward, traditional surveys were completely and definitively stopped. The analysis reveals a cumulative subsidence as high as 12 m during the whole period, causing damage to buildings and infrastructures within an area that includes a large portion of the historical town, at present almost entirely destroyed. Modern sinking rates have been monitored with static GPS whereas the presence of superficial fractures monitored with kinematic GPS. Factors related to the presence of deep fractures and water table rise have been evaluated by curvature analysis techniques and piezometric data respectively. Finally, hazard factors have been combined in a risk map using the GIS (Geographical Information System) map algebra capabilities and a simple multicriteria decision analysis (MDA). In order to do that, a vulnerability map has been derived on the basis of information reported on a couple of recently sensed high resolution satellite imageries. The final risk, arisen from the combination of single hazard factors and vulnerability map, highlights critical scenarios and unsuspected threatening that are under consideration by the local decision makers and urban planners. In particular, as highlighted in the final risk map, the present-day water table rise, triggered by the decrease in brine pumping, is seriously posing a threat to a portion of the city which is not the most involved in ground deformations.  相似文献
土层冻结引发冻胀,引起地面上升和变形,过量的不均匀沉降或变形可能危及周围地面建筑.南京地铁某区间隧道穿过地层为软一流塑状淤泥质粉质粘土,拟采用人工冻结法作为辅助施工方法穿越该不良地段.为对地面建筑物进行变形控制,需要对冻结法施工冻胀效应进行预测.采用随机介质理论对该工程冻结施工的冻胀效应进行预测,介绍了冻胀效应分析的基本过程,编制了计算分析程序,分析了水平冻胀引起的地面隆起、曲率变形规律.结果表明:水平冻胀引起的地面变形均满足地面变形控制要求.  相似文献
采用随机介质理论计算规模采水引起的地面下沉和水平位移。分析了采水引起的地面位移机制,采用有效应力原理推导微单元体的沉降;利用非稳定流理论Theis模型计算单井定流量采水时平面径向流引起的降深;利用现场观测数据,通过反分析法确定模型参数;由于模型的边界动态变化,故分时段采用数学近似法和变边界数值逼近法处理。在此基础上建立单元盆地在降落漏斗区域的时空分布积分方程,引入柱坐标系进行解答。工程实例分析表明,随机介质理论适用于计算采水引起的地面变形;结合非稳定流理论和数值计算方法能较好地预测地面随时间的变形规律。  相似文献
复杂环境条件下大型泥水盾构施工诱发的地表变位的预测与控制是亟待深入研究的重要课题。结合上海长江隧道超大型泥水盾构推进工程,对其上行线隧道穿越民房段前试验段的地表沉降监测数据进行了分析,并采用随机介质理论预测了2条隧道单独及共同施工引起的横向地表变形和位移,据以制定了民房段施工地表变位控制措施。实例分析证明,预测方法和控制措施具有科学性、有效性,有一定的实用价值。  相似文献
土压平衡顶管技术,在覆土厚度不低于0.8D的前提下,可安全地用于地下管道非开挖施工。作者以黄冈遗爱湖截污疏浚DIN2400管道工程——试验段(158m)土压平衡顶管的成功实践为例,对不良地质条件下(0.5~0.6D的低覆土厚度,素填土地层、局部杂填夹有块石和建筑垃圾等)大口径土压平衡顶管施工中地面变形控制等技术问题作以探讨。据初步了解,该工程的成功实践,目前在国内尚属首次。此施工案例的成功,有助于推动土压平衡式顶管技术的革新与进步,对今后类似工程具有一定的指导作用。  相似文献
王凯  张成平  王梦恕 《岩土力学》2011,32(9):2771-2777
在目前众多的预测隧道开挖引起的地层变形的方法中,经验公式法最为简便,也是目前应用最为广泛的方法,为此介绍了多种预测隧道开挖引起的地层沉降和水平位移的经验公式。并以青岛胶州湾海底隧道不对称双连拱断面为工程背景,由位于主隧道与匝道交叉口段的典型断面ZK2+800.78的几何参数和地质资料构建三维数值计算模型,采用岩土体工程通用有限差分软件FLAC3D进行动态施工三维数值模拟。通过对FLAC3D模拟和各经验公式计算的地层沉降和水平位移的对比分析,评价了FLAC3D软件和各经验公式在不对称双连拱隧道断面地层变形预测中的适用性。结果表明,当地层埋深较浅时,不同埋深地层的地层沉降和水平位移可近似用各经验公式来预测;但随着地层埋深的增大,各经验公式预测的偏差不断增大;经验公式只能对单一地层、单一隧道的地层变形进行估算,存在明显的局限性,而在预测复杂地质条件下不对称双连拱隧道断面开挖引起的地层变形时,FLAC3D较各经验公式有明显的优势。  相似文献
为研究哈尔滨地铁盾构法施工地层变形规律。通过现场勘察,监测及整理该工程的地质资料、施工工艺、地层变形监测数据,对地层变形规律进行研究。在此基础上分析总结了哈尔滨地区地铁盾构施工地层变形的规律,地表及地下不同深度的地层各个方向的变形值各不相同,随着与隧道中心线距离的增大而减小,地表处沉降值最小,为类似工程提供了借签。  相似文献
顶管施工引起周围地层变形的计算预测是顶管施工中必须加以重视的问题。地层的沉降变形与顶管施工的几个环节有密切的联系,如:①顶管姿态与开挖面土压;②顶进与换管;③注浆过程等。理论分析应考虑这几个施工中的关键因素。针对上述施工影响因素,提出了考虑注浆压力的顶管施工的地层移动的计算方法。用Mindlin的位移解分析模拟开挖面土压、顶进与换管过程中的侧面摩擦力的变化引起的位移;以Sagaseta的土体损失引起的土体位移模式分析姿态控制、土体损失等引起的变形;将圆孔扩张的Verruijt解拓展到三维,用于计算注浆压力引起的位移与变形。结果表明,考虑注浆压力的变化,可以得到更为合理的预测结果。  相似文献
为了研究芦山地震的孕震过程和震源区的长期构造过程以及解释实测的震后形变和重力资料,采用分层介质模型,利用数值模拟的方法,考虑区域流变系数,计算了地震引起的地表同震、震后的形变和重力变化以及区域内部分GPS与重力连续观测台站的震后形变和重力变化的时间序列.结果表明:芦山地震的地表同震形变显示出发震断层明显的逆冲特性;粘弹性松弛效应引起的震后地表形变和重力变化比同震形变和重力变化的范围明显扩大,但随着粘滞系数的增加,变化量明显减小;观测台站的震后变化时变曲线显示震后形变和重力变化在震后50a间变化显著,100a后基本平缓,趋于稳定;模拟计算的GPS台站中除了MEIG台和MYAN台以外,其余台站的震后观测必须考虑粘弹性松弛的影响.  相似文献
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