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1.
PS技术及其在地表形变监测中的应用现状与发展   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
合成孔径雷达干涉测量技术(InSAR)为地表形变监测提供了极具应用潜力的手段,具有大面积、高空间分辨率、全天候及成本低的优点。但由于大气条件变化、地表覆被等时间空间去相干的影响,其精度和普适性受到极大限制。 近几年发展的永久散射体(PS)技术在传统差分干涉测量(DInSAR)中引入时间维,分析长时间内保持稳定的像元集相位变化,获得毫米级的地表形变测量精度,同时有效地解决了时间空间去相关和大气非均质性影响的问题,目前在滑坡、地面沉降和地质灾害监测等领域得到了广泛的应用。PS技术具有高精度、高时间分辨率、能极大提高影像利用率的优点;但只适用较小区域、需要大量影像、且不适于分析快速突变的地表形变。为克服PS应用中的问题,近年来出现了三角反射体技术、多平台PS技术及相关性像元分析(CPT)技术,使PS技术应用具有更广泛的适应性。  相似文献
2.
软土基坑周围地表沉陷变形计算分析   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
李小青  王朋团  张剑 《岩土力学》2007,28(9):1879-1882
在分析总结基坑周围地表沉陷变形计算方法的基础上,根据软土基坑变形规律,按指数曲线拟合基坑周围地表沉降变形,推导出在软土地区深基坑开挖中由支护结构变位引起周围地表沉降变形的计算方法,并通过实例分析、比较,预测地表沉降,对于周围环境要求严格的基坑工程提供了较可靠的计算方法,对于基坑周围环境保护有重要的意义。  相似文献
3.
软土盾构施工地表变形的小样本进化神经网络预测   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
上海地区软土具有高压缩性和易塑流等特性,在盾构机的挤压和不当施工扰动下将会引起较大的土层移动和地表隆陷。以盾构施工实测位移资料为学习样本,通过遗传算法搜索具有最优预测效果的神经网络结构及学习参数。利用获得的进化神经网络在小样本训练情况下建立模型,对下一步施工的地表变形进行合理的预测。对上海市某盾构隧道的施工地表变形预测表明该模型可获得较高预测精度。  相似文献
4.
We have jointly applied microwave remote sensing imaging and ground-based geophysical methodologies for investigating ground deformation. In particular, the Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method have been applied. The former is a tool for investigating large areas, allowing us to detect deformation phenomena and to analyse their spatial patterns and temporal evolution; the latter permits us to reconstruct, with high spatial resolution, the geometry of near-surface geological structures and to estimate the electrical resistivity of outcropping terrains. The starting point of our analysis has been a DInSAR survey carried out on an area of about 400 km2 centred around the town of Potenza (Basilicata region, Italy), for which SAR data acquired by the ERS-1/2 sensors in the time interval 1992–2000 were available. The DInSAR analysis allowed us to detect an unknown ground deformation effect which involves the urban area of Satriano di Lucania, located close to Potenza. An on-site ERT survey was then carried out in order to characterize in detail the physical properties of the terrains involved in the main deformation pattern detected via the DInSAR processing. The integration of the DInSAR and ERT measurements permitted us to investigate areas where the deformation have space-variant characteristics and allowed us to formulate a hypothesis on the origin of the detected displacement processes that, although not fully conclusive, is consistent with the overall DInSAR and ERT analysis.  相似文献
5.
黑龙江哈尔滨地铁盾构法施工地面变形规律分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为研究哈尔滨地铁盾构法施工地层变形规律。通过现场勘察,监测及整理该工程的地质资料、施工工艺、地层变形监测数据,对地层变形规律进行研究。在此基础上分析总结了哈尔滨地区地铁盾构施工地层变形的规律,地表及地下不同深度的地层各个方向的变形值各不相同,随着与隧道中心线距离的增大而减小,地表处沉降值最小,为类似工程提供了借签。  相似文献
6.
上海长江隧道过民房段地表变位预测及控制研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
复杂环境条件下大型泥水盾构施工诱发的地表变位的预测与控制是亟待深入研究的重要课题。结合上海长江隧道超大型泥水盾构推进工程,对其上行线隧道穿越民房段前试验段的地表沉降监测数据进行了分析,并采用随机介质理论预测了2条隧道单独及共同施工引起的横向地表变形和位移,据以制定了民房段施工地表变位控制措施。实例分析证明,预测方法和控制措施具有科学性、有效性,有一定的实用价值。  相似文献
7.
Ground subsidence triggered by salt mining from deposits located beneath the city of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) is one of the major dangers acting on a very densely urbanized area since 1950, when the salt deposit exploitation by means of boreholes began. As demonstrated in this paper, subsidence induced several hazard factors such as severe ground deformations, the arising of deep and superficial fractures and a very fast water table rise, connected with the brine extraction, now affecting several districts. The above mentioned factors have been quantified by the use of geomatic methodologies, including field surveys and analysis of geographical data. In order to estimate the historical sinking rates, authors processed the large (and never before processed) amount of topographical data collected during two periods; from 1956 to 1991, and from 1992 to 2003, with only poor data collected. Afterward, traditional surveys were completely and definitively stopped. The analysis reveals a cumulative subsidence as high as 12 m during the whole period, causing damage to buildings and infrastructures within an area that includes a large portion of the historical town, at present almost entirely destroyed. Modern sinking rates have been monitored with static GPS whereas the presence of superficial fractures monitored with kinematic GPS. Factors related to the presence of deep fractures and water table rise have been evaluated by curvature analysis techniques and piezometric data respectively. Finally, hazard factors have been combined in a risk map using the GIS (Geographical Information System) map algebra capabilities and a simple multicriteria decision analysis (MDA). In order to do that, a vulnerability map has been derived on the basis of information reported on a couple of recently sensed high resolution satellite imageries. The final risk, arisen from the combination of single hazard factors and vulnerability map, highlights critical scenarios and unsuspected threatening that are under consideration by the local decision makers and urban planners. In particular, as highlighted in the final risk map, the present-day water table rise, triggered by the decrease in brine pumping, is seriously posing a threat to a portion of the city which is not the most involved in ground deformations.  相似文献
8.
Salt mining induced ground subsidence is a major hazard in the city of Tuzla (Northeastern sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and its surroundings since 1950, when solution mining of salt deposits by boreholes began. An analysis of the large (and never before processed) amount of topographical data collected during two periods: from 1956 to the Balkan War, and from 1992 to 2003 has been made. The analysis reveals a cumulative subsidence as high as 12 m during the whole period, causing damage to buildings and infrastructures within an area that includes a large portion of the historical town. Human-induced subsidence, (with rates up to 40 cm/year in the most developed area), has been investigated to recognize the areas affected by the sinking phenomenon and to produce a subsidence hazard. The time series of topographical observations have been enlarged by conducting new surveys in the urban area by modern space-geodesy methodologies, such as static relative GPS (Global Positioning System) and high resolution satellite imageries. The GPS monitoring started in 2004 and detected a decrease in the subsidence rates to 20 cm/year related to the reduction of salt exploitation. There is close correlation between the average subsidence rate and the annual amount of salt extracted.  相似文献
9.
Ground deformation studies based on Differential GPS (DGPS) and Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) analyses have been conducted in the seismically active area of the Central Ionian Islands. Local GPS networks were installed in Cephallonia (2001) and Zakynthos (2005). The Cephallonian network has been remeasured five times and Zakynthos' once as of July 2006. The studies have yielded detailed information regarding both local and regional deformations that are occurring in the area.For Lefkas Island, DInSAR analysis (March to September 2003) revealed 56 mm of uplift in the central and western parts and is attributed to the August 2003 earthquake (Mw = 6.3) that occurred offshore to the west. Synthetic DInSAR modelling of the magnitude and extent of deformation is consistent with the seismologically deduced parameters for the ruptured segment along the Lefkas Transform Fault. Subsidence (< 28 mm) along the northern part of the island is attributed to local conditions unrelated to the earthquake. For Zakynthos Island, large-magnitude earthquakes that occurred offshore to the south in October 2005 and April 2006 most likely contributed to the observed deformation as deduced from DGPS measurements for an encompassing period (August 2005 to July 2006). The largest amount of horizontal deformation occurred in the south, where its western part moved in a W–NW direction, while the eastern part moved towards the NE, with magnitudes ranging from 15 to 26 mm. The southern part of the island uplifted a maximum of 65 mm whereas the north subsided from 12 to 28 mm.For Cephallonia Island, DInSAR analysis (1995 to 1998) indicated ground deformation up to 28 mm located in small sections of the island. Further interferometric analysis for the period 2003 to 2004, encompassing the occurrence of the Lefkas earthquake in August 2003, indicated 28 mm of uplift in the northern part, while during the next two years (2004 to 2005), further uplift of at least 56 mm had taken place at the western and northern part of the island.DGPS measurements for the period 2001 to 2006 revealed a clockwise rotation of the island with respect to a centrally located station on Aenos Mt. The horizontal component of deformation generally ranged from 6 to 34 mm, with the largest values at the western and northern parts of the island. Considering the vertical deformation, two periods are distinguished. The first one (2001 to 2003) is consistent with anticipated motions associated with the main geological and tectonic features of the island. The second one (2003 to 2006) has been tentatively attributed to dilatancy in which relatively small uplift (20–40 mm) occurred along the southern and southeastern parts of the island, while larger magnitudes (> 50 mm) happened at the western part (Paliki Peninsula). These large magnitudes of uplift over an extended area (> 50 km), in conjunction with an accelerated Benioff strain determined from the analysis of the seismicity in the broader region, are consistent with dilatancy. This effect commenced some time after 2003 and is probably centered in the area between Zakynthos and Cephallonia. If this interpretation is correct, it may foreshadow the occurrence of a very strong earthquake(s) sometime during 2007 to 2008 in the above designated region.  相似文献
10.
One of the most critical lessons of the recent earthquakes is the need for seismic planning for lifelines, with appropriate supplies and back up systems for emergency repair and restoration. Seismic planning, however requires physical loss estimations before the earthquakes occur. Buried pipeline damage correlations are critical part of loss estimation procedures applied to lifelines for future earthquakes. We review the existing pipeline damage relationships only for ground shaking (transient ground deformations) in the light of recent developments and evaluate them with Denizli City, Turkey water supply system. Eight scenario earthquakes with four different earthquake magnitudes between M6 and M7 caused by two different fault ruptures (Pamukkale and Karakova-Akhan Faults) were used. Analyses were performed by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This high number of different scenario earthquakes made it possible to compare the pipeline damage relationships at different ground shaking levels. Pipeline damage estimations for Denizli City were calculated for each damage relationship and earthquake scenario. Relative effects of damage relationships and scenario earthquakes on the results were compared and discussed. The results were presented separately for brittle, ductile, and all pipelines. It was shown that the variation in ductile pipeline damage estimations by various relationships was higher than the variation in brittle pipeline damage estimations for a particular scenario earthquake.  相似文献
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