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1.
Wildfire increases the potential connectivity of runoff and sediment throughout watersheds due to greater bare soil, runoff and erosion as compared to pre-fire conditions. This research examines the connectivity of post-fire runoff and sediment from hillslopes (< 1.5 ha; n = 31) and catchments (< 1000 ha; n = 10) within two watersheds (< 1500 ha) burned by the 2012 High Park Fire in northcentral Colorado, USA. Our objectives were to: (1) identify sources and quantify magnitudes of post-fire runoff and erosion at nested hillslopes and watersheds for two rain storms with varied duration, intensity and antecedent precipitation; and (2) assess the factors affecting the magnitude and connectivity of runoff and sediment across spatial scales for these two rain storms. The two summer storms that are the focus of this research occurred during the third summer after burning. The first storm had low intensity rainfall over 11 hours (return interval <1–2 years), whereas the second event had high intensity rainfall over 1 hour (return interval <1–10 years). The lower intensity storm was preceded by high antecedent rainfall and led to low hillslope sediment yields and channel incision at most locations, whereas the high intensity storm led to infiltration-excess overland flow, high sediment yields, in-stream sediment deposition and channel substrate fining. For both storms, hillslope-to-stream sediment delivery ratios and area-normalised cross-sectional channel change increased with the percent of catchment that burned at high severity. For the high intensity storm, hillslope-to-stream sediment delivery ratios decreased with unconfined channel length (%). The findings quantify post-fire connectivity and sediment delivery from hillslopes and streams, and highlight how different types of storms can cause varying magnitues and spatial patterns of sediment transport and deposition from hillslopes through stream channel networks.  相似文献   
2.
Mitigating and adapting to global changes requires a better understanding of the response of the Biosphere to these environmental variations. Human disturbances and their effects act in the long term (decades to centuries) and consequently, a similar time frame is needed to fully understand the hydrological and biogeochemical functioning of a natural system. To this end, the ‘Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique’ (CNRS) promotes and certifies long-term monitoring tools called national observation services or ‘Service National d'Observation’ (SNO) in a large range of hydrological and biogeochemical systems (e.g., cryosphere, catchments, aquifers). The SNO investigating peatlands, the SNO ‘Tourbières’, was certified in 2011 ( https://www.sno-tourbieres.cnrs.fr/ ). Peatlands are mostly found in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere and French peatlands are located in the southern part of this area. Thus, they are located in environmental conditions that will occur in northern peatlands in coming decades or centuries and can be considered as sentinels. The SNO Tourbières is composed of four peatlands: La Guette (lowland central France), Landemarais (lowland oceanic western France), Frasne (upland continental eastern France) and Bernadouze (upland southern France). Thirty target variables are monitored to study the hydrological and biogeochemical functioning of the sites. They are grouped into four datasets: hydrology, fluvial export of organic matter, greenhouse gas fluxes and meteorology/soil physics. The data from all sites follow a common processing chain from the sensors to the public repository. The raw data are stored on an FTP server. After operator or automatic processing, data are stored in a database, from which a web application extracts the data to make them available ( https://data-snot.cnrs.fr/data-access/ ). Each year at least, an archive of each dataset is stored in Zenodo, with a digital object identifier (DOI) attribution ( https://zenodo.org/communities/sno_tourbieres_data/ ).  相似文献   
3.
4.
Large dams and reservoirs alter not only the natural flow regimes of streams and rivers but also their flooding cycles and flood magnitudes. Although the effect of dams and reservoirs has been reported for some vulnerable locations, the understanding of the inner-basin variation with respect to the effects remains limited. In this study, we analyse the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) built on the Changjiang mainstream (Yangtze River) to investigate the dam effect variations in the system of interconnected water bodies located downstream. We investigated the effect of flow alterations along the downstream river network using discharge time series at different gauging stations. The river–lake interactions (referring to the interactions between the Changjiang mainstream and its tributary lakes i.e. the Dongting and Poyang lakes) and their roles in modifying the TGD effect intensity were also investigated in the large-scale river–lake system. The results show that the water storage of the tributary lakes decreased after the activation of the TGD. Severe droughts occurred in the lakes, weakening their ability to recharge the Changjiang mainstream. As a consequence, the effect of the TGD on the Changjiang flow increase during the dry season diminished quickly downstream of the dam, whereas its impact on the flow decrease during the wet season gradually exacerbated along the mainstream, especially at sites located downstream of the lake outlets. Therefore, when assessing dam-induced hydrological changes, special attention should be paid to the changes in the storage of tributary lakes and the associated effects in the mainstream. This is of high importance for managing the water resource trade-offs between different water bodies in dam-affected riverine systems.  相似文献   
5.
Water flow velocity is an important hydraulic variable in hydrological and soil erosion models, and is greatly affected by freezing and thawing of the surface soil layer in cold high-altitude regions. The accurate measurement of rill flow velocity when impacted by the thawing process is critical to simulate runoff and sediment transport processes. In this study, an electrolyte tracer modelling method was used to measure rill flow velocity along a meadow soil slope at different thaw depths under simulated rainfall. Rill flow velocity was measured using four thawed soil depths (0, 1, 2 and 10 cm), four slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15° and 20°) and four rainfall intensities (30, 60, 90 and 120 mm·h−1). The results showed that the increase in thawed soil depth caused a decrease in rill flow velocity, whereby the rate of this decrease was also diminishing. Whilst the rill flow velocity was positively correlated with slope gradient and rainfall intensity, the response of rill flow velocity to these influencing factors varied with thawed soil depth. The mechanism by which thawed soil depth influenced rill flow velocity was attributed to the consumption of runoff energy, slope surface roughness, and the headcut effect. Rill flow velocity was modelled by thawed soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall intensity using an empirical function. This function predicted values that were in good agreement with the measured data. These results provide the foundation for a better understanding of the effect of thawed soil depth on slope hydrology, erosion and the parameterization scheme for hydrological and soil erosion models.  相似文献   
6.
Average velocity in streams is a key variable for the analysis and modelling of hydrological and hydraulic processes underpinning water resources science and practice. The present study evaluates the impact of the sampling duration on the quality of average velocity measurements acquired with contemporary instruments such as Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) an Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). The evaluation combines considerations on turbulent flows and principles and configurations of acoustic instruments with practical experience in conducting customized analysis for uncertainty analysis purposes. The study sheds new insights on the spatial and temporal variability of the uncertainty in the measurement of average velocities due to variable sampling durations acting in isolation from other sources of uncertainties. Sampling durations of 90 and 150 s are found sufficient for ADV and ADCP, respectively, to obtain reliable average velocities in a flow affected only by natural turbulence and instrument noise. Larger sampling durations are needed for measurements in most of the natural streams exposed to additional sources of data variability.  相似文献   
7.
The use of the sulphate mass balance (SMB) between precipitation and soil water as a supplementary method to estimate the diffuse recharge rate assumes that the sulphate in soil water originated entirely from atmospheric deposition; however, the origin of sulphate in soil and groundwater is often unclear, especially in loess aquifers. This study analysed the sulphur (δ34S-SO4) and oxygen (δ18O-SO4) isotopes of sulphate in precipitation, water-extractable soil water, and shallow groundwater samples and used these data along with hydrochemical data to determine the sources of sulphate in the thick unsaturated zone and groundwater of a loess aquifer. The results suggest that sulphate in groundwater mainly originated from old precipitation. When precipitation percolates through the unsaturated zone to recharge groundwater, sulphates were rarely dissolved due to the formation of CaCO3 film on the surface of sulphate minerals. The water-extractable sulphate in the deep unsaturated zone (>10 m) was mainly derived from the dissolution of evaporite minerals and there was no oxidation of sulphide minerals during the extraction of soil water by elutriating soil samples with deionized water. The water-extractable concentration of SO4 was not representative of the actual SO4 concentration in mobile soil water. Therefore, the recharge rate cannot be estimated by the SMB method using the water-extractable concentration of SO4 in the loess areas. This study is important for identifying sulphate sources and clarifying the proper method for estimating the recharge rate in loess aquifers.  相似文献   
8.
钱磊 《天文学报》2021,62(1):7-87
通过结构函数可以测量湍流的能量级联速率.在实际观测中,无法测量分子云中气体的3维速度,这使得其湍流结构函数难以测量.对垂直于视线方向的薄分子云的情形,结构函数Stt2可以通过云核速度弥散(core velocity dispersion,CVD)进行测量,CVD2=1/2Stt2.对此进行推广,对于不垂直于视线方向的薄分子云,CVD2=1/2Stt2(1-1/8cos2θ)R2/3,其中,θ是视线方向与投影方向的夹角,平均投影距离与3维距离之比R可以用第2类椭圆积分E(k,φ)表示为R=2/πE(cosθ,π/2).  相似文献   
9.
Abstract

Large debris flows in steep-sloped ravines debouching to the Rimac River, in metropolitan Lima (Peruvian capital), have resulted in considerable loss of life and property adversely impacting communities in the region. Temporal, spatial and volumetric features of debris flows are difficult to predict, and it is of utmost importance that achievable management solutions are found to reduce the impact of these catastrophic events. The emotional and economic toll of these debris flows on this increasingly densely populated capital city in South America is devastating where communities must live in such inadequate and dangerous conditions. To address this problem, the application of advanced Japanese technology, Sustainable Actions Basin Orientation (SABO), has been investigated using a geomorphological modelling to develop an implementation plan. Rayos de Sol stream basin in Chosica, was selected as a pilot to develop the proposal, as it is considered high risk due to the presence of ancient debris flows and recent flows in 2012, 2015 and 2017. The recurrence of debris flows in this location has resulted in numerous deaths and catastrophic property losses. This study combines geologic and geomorphic mapping and hydraulic and landform evolution numerical modelling. The implementation of a SABO Master Plan based on the multidisciplinary assessment hazard scenarios, will allow the implementation of feasible mitigation actions. The SABO technology has been applied successfully in Japan and other countries in areas with steep short slopes, similar to the conditions surrounding the Peruvian capital. Results from this study will be presented to the Peruvian Government as part of an action plan to manage debris-flow impact.
  1. KEY POINTS
  2. High-risk mass slope failure is linked to poor urban planning in urban developing regions of Lima the capital of Peru.

  3. A multidisciplinary study including geotechnical and hydrological analysis, engineering design, and socio-economic research is required to implement a SABO Master Plan, and this basin is pilot study basin.

  4. At the present time, a maintenance programme for existing hydraulic structures should be implemented, and a flood risk management plan developed may propose the relocation of some communities and infrastructure.

  相似文献   
10.
Atmospheric dust is an integral component of the Earth system with major implications for the climate, biosphere and public health. In this context, identifying and quantifying the provenance and the processes generating the various types of dust found in the atmosphere is paramount. Isotopic signatures of Pb, Nd, Sr, Zn, Cu and Fe are commonly used as sensitive geochemical tracers. However, their combined use is limited by the lack of (a) a dedicated chromatographic protocol to separate the six elements of interest for low‐mass samples and (b) specific reference materials for dust. Indeed, our work shows that USGS rock reference materials BHVO‐2, AGV‐2 and G‐2 are not applicable as substitute reference materials for dust. We characterised the isotopic signatures of these six elements in dust reference materials ATD and BCR‐723, representatives of natural and urban environments, respectively. To achieve this, we developed a specific procedure for dust, applicable in the 4–25 mg mass range, to separate the six elements using a multi‐column ion‐exchange chromatographic method and MC‐ICP‐MS measurements.  相似文献   
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