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1.
Monotonic lateral load model tests were carried out on steel skirted suction caissons embedded in the saturated medium sand to study the bearing capacity. A three-dimensional continuum finite element model was developed with Z_SOIL software. The numerical model was calibrated against experimental results. Soil deformation and earth pressures on skirted caissons were investigated by using the finite element model to extend the model tests. It shows that the "skirted" structure can significantly increase the lateral capacity and limit the deflection, especially suitable for offshore wind turbines, compared with regular suction caissons without the "skirted" at the same load level. In addition, appropriate determination of rotation centers plays a crucial role in calculating the lateral capacity by using the analytical method. It was also found that the rotation center is related to dimensions of skirted suction caissons and loading process, i.e. the rotation center moves upwards with the increase of the "skirted" width and length; moreover, the rotation center moves downwards with the increase of loading and keeps constant when all the sand along the caisson's wall yields. It is so complex that we cannot simply determine its position like the regular suction caisson commonly with a specified position to the length ratio of the caisson.  相似文献
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传统吸力基础是一个单桶结构,被广泛作为海洋平台、漂浮结构的基础,近年来也被推广到海上风电塔架。作为风电塔架基础,要充分提高其水平承载能力。为此,提出一种改进的基础形式—裙式吸力基础。采用Z_SOIL有限元软件,针对砂土地基,从水平单调加载和循环加载两个方面,对传统单桶吸力基础和裙式吸力基础进行了承载性能对比研究,得到了相应的荷载-位移曲线。研究结果表明,裙式吸力基础由于设置了"裙"结构,显著提高了其抵抗水平静载和循环水平动力荷载的能力,并能有效控制基础的水平位移,是值得推广应用的一种新型海洋工程基础形式。  相似文献
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针对粉土中吸力桶在吸力沉贯中的两个关键性问题——沉贯阻力和内部土体稳定性,在自行研制的试验平台上进行了一系列吸力桶沉贯模型试验。试验结果表明,粉土中吸力沉贯时,Andersen所提供的基于CPT锥尖强度的阻力计算公式能较好预测阻力发展趋势,但计算结果偏小;而修正的承载力公式预测结果在沉贯前期与实测值较吻合,沉贯后期预测偏大。吸力沉贯前期,贯入阻力随深度稳步增长,直到贯入深度达到某个临界值后,阻力增长缓慢甚至保持不变。桶内粉土在吸力作用下的失稳机理与黏土或砂土不同,在渗透力作用下表现为从土层表面开始的自上而下管涌或渗流侵蚀。沉贯后期,端部土体在较高水头差下发生失稳并向桶内流动,造成了桶内土体密度降低,端阻力与内壁摩阻力降低,总贯入阻力主要由外壁摩阻力提供。并结合有限元模拟对上述实验现象的内在机理进行了解释。  相似文献
5.
A study was made to present analytical solutions of pullout load capacity for a suction caisson subjected to inclined tension in clay. The inclined tension on the skirt of the suction caisson is transformed into an equivalent system comprised of the vertical, horizontal, and moment load applied on the center of the lid. The vertical and horizontal stiffness coefficients along the skirt of the suction caisson in clay are presented by three-dimensional elastic solutions considering the nonhomogeneous and nonlinear property of clay. The vertical, horizontal, and rocking stiffness coefficient of the suction caisson on the base are presented considering the solutions of a hollow rigid cylindrical punch acting on the surface of clay. The envelopes of the horizontal and vertical ultimate load capacity for clay are presented. The yield, pullout, and failure for clay are taken into consideration. The effects of load inclination, loading depth, and aspect ratio on the pullout load capacity are shown. Behavior of the suction caisson in clay up to failure is investigated using the relationship between tensile load and displacement and that between depth, vertical, and horizontal pressure.  相似文献
6.
An investigation was made to present analytical solutions of cyclic response to suction caisson subjected to inclined cyclic loadings in clay using a three-dimensional displacement approach. A model representing the relationship between vertical load and vertical displacement and that between lateral load and lateral displacement along the skirt of suction caisson subjected to cyclic loadings is proposed for overconsolidated clay. For the effect of vertical load on cyclic load capacity of suction caisson, using the Mindlin solution in the case of a vertical point load, the vertical stress of soil under the base of suction caisson is presented. For the stress state of soil beneath the base of suction caisson subjected to cyclic loading, the Mohr–Coulomb failure line and critical state line are presented and the relationship between total stress, effective mean principal stress, stress difference, and pore-pressure is elucidated. The comparison of results predicted by the present method for a suction caisson subjected to cyclic loadings in clay has shown good agreement with those obtained from field tests. Cyclic behavior of clay up to failure is made clear from the relationship between cyclic tensile load, vertical and lateral displacements, and rotation and that between depth, vertical, and lateral pressures.  相似文献
7.
A series of model tests were conducted on Perspex-made suction caissons in saturated dense marine sand to study the sand plug formation during extraction. Suction caissons were extracted by pullout loading or by pumping air into the suction caisson. Effects of the pullout rates, aspect ratios and loading ways (monotonic or sustained) on the pullout capacity, and plug formation were investigated. It was found that the ultimate pullout capacity of the suction caisson increases with increasing the pullout rate. The sand plug formation under the pullout loading is significantly influenced by the pullout rate and the loading way. When the suction caisson is extracted at a relatively slow rate, the general sand boiling through the sand plug along the inner caisson wall occurs. On the contrary, the local sand boiling will occur at the bottom of the suction caisson subjected to a rapid monotonic loading or a sustained loading. Test results of the suction caisson extracted by pumping air into the caisson show that the pressure in the suction caisson almost follows a linear relationship with the upward displacement. The maximum pressures for suction caissons with aspect ratios of 1.0 and 2.0 during extraction by pumping air into the caisson are 1.70 and 2.27 times the maximum suction required to penetrate the suction caisson into sand. It was found that the sand plug moves downward during extraction by pumping air into the caisson and the variation in the sand plug height is mainly caused by the outflow of the sand particles from the inside of the suction caisson to the outside. When the suction caisson model is extracted under the pullout rate of 2?mm/s (0.28?mm/s for the prototype), the hydraulic gradient along the suction caisson wall increases to the maximum value with increasing the penetration depth and then reduces to zero. On the contrary, when extracted under the pullout rate of 10?mm/s (1.4?mm/s for the prototype), the hydraulic gradient along the suction caisson wall increases with increasing the pullout displacement. When extracted by pumping air into the caisson, the hydraulic gradient reaches the critical value, and at the same time, the seepage failure occurs around the suction caisson tip.  相似文献
8.
The suction caisson (or called suction anchor) which is considered as a relatively new type of foundation of offshore structures, has been extensively studied and applied for offshore wind turbines and oil platforms. The installation of the suction caisson is of great importance in the design and construction because it can bring about several issues and further influence the performance of holding capacity in safety service. In this paper, large deformation finite element (FE) analyses are performed to model the installation of suction caisson (SC) by suction and jacking in normally consolidated clay. The penetration of the suction caisson is modeled using an axisymmetric FE approach with the help of the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation which can satisfactorily solve the large deformation problem. The undrained shear strength of the clay and elastic modulus are varied with depth of soil through the subroutine VUFIELD. The numerical results allow quantification of the penetration resistance and its dependence on the installation method. The centrifuge test and theoretical solution are used for the FE model validation. After the validation, the penetration resistance, the soil plug heave, and the caisson wall friction have been examined through the FE model. Based on the numerical results, it is shown that the ALE technique can simulate the entire suction caisson penetration without mesh distortion problem. The installation method can play an important role on the penetration resistance, namely, the suction installation reduces the penetration resistance significantly compared to the purely jacked installation. With a further study on the suction case, it is found that as the final applied suction pressure increases, the soil plug heave increases, while the penetration resistance reduces with increase of the final suction pressure. The effect of the friction of internal caisson walls has been also investigated and a conclusion is drawn that internal wall friction has a significant contribution to the penetration resistance and it can be implicitly represented by varying coefficient of internal wall friction. As for the penetration resistance, both jacked and suction installation have great dependency on the internal wall friction.  相似文献
9.
王志云  王栋  栾茂田  范庆来  武科 《海洋工程》2007,25(2):52-56,71
吸力式沉箱基础的承载特性是海洋工程结构设施建造与设计中的一个关键问题。这种新型的深水海洋基础型式,通常承受竖向上拔荷载与水平荷载的共同作用,其工作性能与设计理论远远不能满足工程实践的需要。本文采用有限元分析方法对吸力式沉箱基础的极限承载特性进行数值计算。以大型通用有限元分析软件ABAQUS为平台,通过二次开发,数值实现了Swipe试验加载方法和固定位移比分析方法,针对不同的沉箱长径比、土的强度折减系数,探讨了沉箱基础在垂直上拔荷载和水平荷载单调联合作用下的极限承载力,通过对不同荷载组合的数值计算构造了复合加载条件下沉箱基础破坏包络面。  相似文献
10.
Suction caissons are widely used to support offshore fixed platforms in coastal areas. The loadings transferred to suction caissons include the eccentric lateral force induced by waves and self weight of the platform structure. However, under this kind of combined loading conditions, the failure mechanism of caissons with shallow embedment depths is quite different from conventional deep foundations or onshore shallow footings. The behaviour of caissons subjected to combined loadings may be described with the "failure locus" in force resultant spaces. Here the failure loci of smooth caissons are studied by use of finite element approach, with the embedment ratio of caissons varying in the range of 0.25~1.0 and eccentricity ratio of horizontal loadings in 0~10. The platform settlement and tilt limits are involved into determination of failure loci, thus the platforms can avoid significant displacements for the combined loadings located inside the failure locus. Three families of loading paths are used to map out the locus. It is found that the shape of failure loci depends on 3 non-dimensional parameters, and the failure locus of a given caisson changes gradually from the elliptical curve to hooked curve with increasing shear strength of soil. The lateral capacity of short caissons may be enhanced by vertical forces, compared with the maximum lateral capacity of long caissons occurring at the vertical force being zero. The critical embedment ratios partitioning elliptical and hooked loci are proposed.  相似文献
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