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1.
Sr–Nd isotope data are reported for the early Precambrian sub-alkaline mafic igneous rocks of the southern Bastar craton, central India. These mafic rocks are mostly dykes but there are a few volcanic exposures. Field relationships together with the petrological and geochemical characteristics of these mafic dykes divide them into two groups; Meso-Neoarchaean sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD1) and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD2). The mafic volcanics are Neoarchaean in age and have very close geochemical relationships with the BD1 type. The two groups have distinctly different concentrations of high-field strength (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE). The BD2 dykes have higher concentrations of HFSE and REE than the BD1 dykes and associated volcanics and both groups have very distinctive petrogenetic histories. These rocks display a limited range of initial 143Nd/144Nd but a wide range of apparent initial 87Sr/86Sr. Initial 143Nd/144Nd values in the BD1 dykes and associated volcanics vary between 0.509149 and 0.509466 and in the BD2 dykes the variation is between 0.510303 and 0.510511. All samples have positive ? Nd values; the BD1 dykes and associated volcanics have ? Nd values between +0.3 and +6.5 and the BD2 dykes between +1.9 to +6.0. Trace element and Nd isotope data do not suggest severe crustal contamination during the emplacement of the studied rocks. The positive ? Nd values suggest their derivation from a depleted mantle source. Overlapping positive ? Nd values suggest that a similar mantle source tapped by variable melt fractions at different times was responsible for the genesis of BD1 (and associated volcanics) and BD2 mafic dykes. The Rb–Sr system is susceptible to alteration and resetting during post-magmatic alteration and metamorphism. Many of the samples studied have anomalous apparent initial 87Sr/86Sr suggesting post-magmatic changes of the Rb–Sr system which severely restricts the use of Rb–Sr for petrogenetic interpretation.  相似文献
2.
The Siddanpalli kimberlites constitute a newly discovered cluster (SKC) of Mesoproterozoic (1090 Ma) dykes occurring in the granite-greenstone terrain of the Gadwal area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), Southern India. They belong to coherent facies and contain serpentinized olivines (two generations), phlogopite, spinel, perovskite, ilmenite, apatite, carbonate and garnet xenocrysts. A peculiar feature of these kimberlites is the abundance of carbonate and limestone xenoliths of the eroded platformal Proterozoic (Purana) sedimentary cover of Kurnool/Bhima age. Chemically, the Siddanpalli dykes are the most magnesium-rich (up to 35 wt.% MgO) and silica-undersaturated (SiO2?相似文献
3.
Boninite-norite (BN) suites emplaced in an intracratonic setting in Archaean Cratons, are reported from many parts of the world. Such high-Mg low-Ti siliceous rocks are emplaced during Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic. The Archaean central Indian Bastar Craton also contains such a boninite-norite suite, which occurs in the form of dykes and volcanics. The spatial and temporal correlation of these high-Mg low-Ti siliceous rocks with similar rocks occurring around the northern Bastar and Dharwar Cratons probably represent a Bastar-Dharwar Large Igneous Province during the Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic. Platinum group element (PGE) abundances in these rocks provide constraints on their geochemical evolution during the Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic. The PGE geochemistry of the boninite-norite suite from the southern part of the central Indian Bastar Craton is presented to understand their behaviour during magma fractionation. In primitive mantle-normalized plots all samples have similar PGE fractionated patterns that are enriched in Pd, Pt and Rh relative to Ru. The Pd/Ru ratios for eight samples range from 2.0 to 7.0 which is higher than primitive mantle (primitive mantle Pd/Ru ≈1.2). The Pd/Pt ratios range between 0.2–2.5 with an average value of 0.7 which is near chondritic (primitive mantle Pd/Pt ≈0.5). PGE variations in these rocks together with those of major and other trace elements are consistent with a model involving olivine fractionation along with chromite as a cotectic phase. The Pt fractionation from Pd and Rh is controlled by both olivine and chromite crystallization at an early stage during high temperature crystal fractionation when the Pt was strongly compatible and Pd and Rh were incompatible. Strong negative correlations of the S content with iron and TiO2 plus lithophile element contents of the rock suggest a decrease of the S solubility in the parental high-Mg magma and separation of an immiscible sulfide liquid with decreasing temperature. Palladium plus other available chalcophile elements (e.g., Re, Au, Ag) have been fractionated in this immiscible sulfide liquid after considerable olivine fractionation of the magma.  相似文献
4.
We report a rare accessory groundmass mineral of K-rich titanate, having a composition close to that of potassium triskaidecatitanate (K2Ti13O27), from an underground drill-core sample of ultrapotassic rock from southwestern part of the Jharia coal field in the Damodar valley, at the northern margin of the Singhbhum craton, Eastern India. Potassium triskaidecatitanate is regarded as a typomorphic mineral of orangeites (Group II kimberlites) of Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa, and its occurrence in the Jharia ultrapotassic rock is significant since ultrapotassic suite of rocks elsewhere from the Damodar valley have been recently suggested to be peralkaline lamproites based on mineral-genetic classification. The important role played by a unique geodynamic setting (involving a thinned metasomatised lithospheric mantle and inheritance of an Archaean subduction component) at the northern margin of the Singhbhum craton in deciding the petrological diversity of the early Cretaceous ultrapotassic intrusives from the Damodar valley is highlighted in this study.  相似文献
5.
Major and trace element geochemistry of Proterozoic granitoids from the Dirang and Galensiniak Formations, of Lesser and Higher Himalayas, respectively, emplaced in and around Dirang and Tawang regions of the western Arunachal Himalaya, is discussed. In general, these granitoids are massive as well as foliated in nature and are characterized by granitic mineralogical compositions. Porphyritic and hypidiomorphic textures are common in massive type, whereas others show porphyroblastic and foliated textures. Augen structure is also observed in a number of samples. Geochemical and normative compositions together with petrographic features classify them as peraluminous granitoids. Major and trace element geochemistry of most of these granitoids shows granitic nature, while few samples also show monzonitic characteristics. Observed geochemical characters, such as their peraluminous and alkali-calcic/calcic-alkalic nature, crudely defined geochemical patterns, different multi-element and rare-earth element patterns, together with low Mg# (Mg number) of these granitoids suggest their derivation from lower crustal material rather than a mantle source. Multi-element and rare-earth element patterns corroborate their genesis from different crustal melts. It is difficult to explain variations observed in granitoid rocks by partial melting alone; definitely different other processes like migration of melts, magma mixing, assimilation and fractional crystallization also played important role in the genesis of these granitoids. These melts were likely generated at low temperature (730–760 °C) and low pressure (2–5 GPa). The chemical compositions suggest that most of these Paleoproterozoic granitoids are emplaced within the syn-collisional tectonic setting, while few granitoid samples also indicate their volcanic-arc nature. Probably, later group of granitoids are slightly younger to the syn-collisional type.  相似文献
6.
A vast tract of ENE–WSW to NE–SW trending mafic dyke swarm transects Archaean basement rocks within the eastern Dharwar craton. Petrographic data reveal their dolerite/olivine dolerite or gabbro/olivine gabbro composition. Geochemical characteristics, particularly HFSEs, indicate that not all these dykes are co-genetic but are probably derived from more than one magma batch and different crystallization trends. In most samples the LaN/LuN ratio is at ∼2, whereas others have a LaN/LuN ratio >2 and show higher concentrations of high-field strength elements (HFSEs) than the former group. As a consequence, we assume that the ENE–WSW to NE–SE trending mafic dykes of the eastern Dharwar craton do not represent one single magmatic event but were emplaced in two different episodes; one of them dated at about 2.37 Ga and another probably at about 1.89 Ga. Trace element modelling also supports this inference: older mafic dykes are derived from a melt generated through ∼25% melting of a depleted mantle, whereas the younger set of dykes shows its derivation through a lower degree of melting (∼15%) of a comparatively enriched mantle source.  相似文献
7.
The Archean eastern Dharwar craton is transacted by at least four major Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms. We present geochemical data for the ~2.21–2.22 Ga N-S to NNW-SSE trending Kunigal mafic dyke swarm of the eastern Dharwar craton to address its petrogenesis and formation of large igneous province as well as spatial link to supercontinent history. It has a strike span of about 200 km; one dyke of this swarm runs ~300 km along the western margin of the Closepet granite. Texture and mineral compositions classify them as dolerite and olivine dolerite. They show compositions of high-iron tholeiites, high-magnesian tholeiites or picrites. Geochemical characteristics of the sampled dykes suggest their co-genetic nature and show variation from primitive (Mg#; as high as ~76) to evolved (differentiated) nature. Although geochemical characteristics indicate possibility of minor crustal contamination, they show their derivation from an uncontaminated mantle melt. These mafic dykes are probably evolved from a sub-alkaline basaltic magma generated by ~20 % batch melting of a depleted lherzolite mantle source and about 15–30 % olivine fractionation. Paleoproterozoic (~2.21–2.22 Ga) mafic magmatism is recognized globally as dyke swarms or gabbroic sill complexes in the Superior, Slave, North Atlantic, Fennoscandian and Pilbara cratons. Possible Paleoproterozoic Dharwar–Superior–North-Atlantic–Slave correlations are constrained with implications for the configuration of supercraton Superia.  相似文献
8.
9.
A newly recognized remnant of a Paleoproterozoic Large Igneous Province has been identified in the southern Bastar craton and nearby Cuddapah basin from the adjacent Dharwar craton, India. High precision U–Pb dates of 1891.1 ± 0.9 Ma (baddeleyite) and 1883.0 ± 1.4 Ma (baddeleyite and zircon) for two SE-trending mafic dykes from the BD2 dyke swarm, southern Bastar craton, and 1885.4 ± 3.1 Ma (baddeleyite) for a mafic sill from the Cuddapah basin, indicate the existence of 1891–1883 Ma mafic magmatism that spans an area of at least 90,000 km2 in the south Indian shield.This record of 1.9 Ga mafic/ultramafic magmatism associated with concomitant intracontinental rifting and basin development preserved along much of the south-eastern margin of the south Indian shield is a widespread geologic phenomenon on Earth. Similar periods of intraplate mafic/ultramafic magmatism occur along the margin of the Superior craton in North America (1.88 Ga Molson large igneous province) and in southern Africa along the northern margin of the Kaapvaal craton (1.88–1.87 Ga dolerite sills intruding the Waterberg Group). Existing paleomagnetic data for the Molson and Waterberg 1.88 Ga large igneous provinces indicate that the Superior and Kalahari cratons were at similar paleolatitudes at 1.88 Ga but a paleocontinental reconstruction at this time involving these cratons is impeded by the lack of a robust geological pin such as a Limpopo-like 2.0 Ga deformation zone in the Superior Province. The widespread occurrence of 1.88 Ga intraplate and plate margin mafic magmatism and basin development in numerous Archean cratons worldwide likely reflects a period of global-scale mantle upwelling or enhanced mantle plume activity at this time.  相似文献
10.
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