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1.
中国近海的环流动力机制研究   总被引:14,自引:14,他引:54  
苏纪兰 《海洋学报》2001,23(4):1-16
本文总结国内外对我国近海环流所作的工作,对渤海、黄海、东海和南海等环流的主要动力机制作一简述。  相似文献
2.
Atmospheric forcing of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review   总被引:8,自引:8,他引:1  
The increase in marine, land surface, atmospheric and satellite data during recent decades has led to an improved understanding of the air–sea interaction processes in the eastern tropical Pacific. This is also thanks to extensive diagnoses from conceptual and coupled ocean–atmosphere numerical models. In this paper, mean fields of atmospheric variables, such as incoming solar radiation, sea level pressure, winds, wind stress curl, precipitation, evaporation, and surface energy fluxes, are derived from global atmospheric data sets in order to examine the dominant features of the low level atmospheric circulations of the region. The seasonal march of the atmospheric circulations is presented to depict the role of radiative forcing on atmospheric perturbations, especially those dominating the atmosphere at low levels.In the tropics, the trade winds constitute an important north–south energy and moisture exchange mechanism (as part of the low level branch of the Hadley circulation), that determines to a large extent the precipitation distribution in the region, i.e., that associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Monsoonal circulations also play an important role in determining the warm season precipitation distribution over the eastern tropical Pacific through a large variety of air–sea–land interaction mechanisms. Westward traveling waves, tropical cyclones, low latitude cold air intrusions, and other synoptic and mesoscale perturbations associated with the ITCZ are also important elements that modulate the annual rainfall cycle. The low-level jets of the Gulf of California, the Intra-Americas Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea) and Chocó, Colombia are prominent features of the eastern tropical Pacific low-level circulations related to sub-regional and regional scale precipitation patterns. Observations show that the Intra-Americas Low-Level Jet intensity varies with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases, however its origin and role in the westward propagation and development of disturbances that may hit the eastern tropical Pacific, such as easterly waves and tropical cyclones, are still unclear. Changes in the intensity of the trade winds in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (associated with eastern tropical Pacific wind jets) exert an important control on precipitation by means of wind–topography interactions. Gaps in the mountains of southern Mexico and Central America allow strong wind jets to pass over the continent imprinting a unique signal in sea surface temperatures and ocean dynamics of the eastern tropical Pacific.The warm pools of the Americas constitute an important source of moisture for the North American Monsoon System. The northeastern tropical Pacific is a region of intense cyclogenetic activity, just west of the coast of Mesoamerica. Over the oceanic regions, large-scale properties of key variables such as precipitation, moisture, surface energy fluxes and wind stress curl are still uncertain, which inhibits a more comprehensive view of the region and stresses the importance of regional field experiments. Progress has been substantial in the understanding of the ocean and atmospheric dynamics of the eastern tropical Pacific, however, recent observational evidence such as that of a shallow meridional circulation cell in that region, in contrast to the classic concept of the Hadley-type deep meridional circulation, suggests that more in situ observations to validate theories are still necessary.This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.  相似文献
3.
An assessment of global ocean wave energy resources over the last 45 a   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:1  
Against the background of the current world facing an energy crisis,and human beings puzzled by the problems of environment and resources,developing clean energy sources becomes the inevitable choice to deal with a climate change and an energy shortage.A global ocean wave energy resource was reanalyzed by using ERA-40 wave reanalysis data 1957–2002 from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF).An effective significant wave height is defined in the development of wave energy resources(short as effective SWH),and the total potential of wave energy is exploratively calculated.Synthetically considering a wave energy density,a wave energy level probability,the frequency of the effective SWH,the stability and long-term trend of wave energy density,a swell index and a wave energy storage,global ocean wave energy resources were reanalyzed and regionalized,providing reference to the development of wave energy resources such as wave power plant location,seawater desalination,heating,pumping.  相似文献
4.
The role of surface waves in the ocean mixed layer   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:1  
Previously, most ocean circulation models have overlooked the role of the surface waves. As a result, these models have produced insufficient vertical mixing, with an under - prediction of the ,nixing layer (ML) depth and an over - prediction of the sea surface temperature (SST), particularly during the summer season. As the ocean surface layer determines the lower boundary conditions of the atmosphere, this deficiency has severely limited the performance of the coupled ocean - atmospheric models and hence the climate studies. To overcome this shortcoming, a new parameterization for the wave effects in the ML model that will correct this systematic error of insufficient mixing. The new scheme has enabled the mixing layer to deepen, the surface excessive heating to be corrected, and an excellent agreement with observed global climatologic data. The study indicates that the surface waves are essential for ML formation, and that they are the primer drivers of the upper ocean dynamics; therefore, they are critical for climate studies.  相似文献
5.
As reported in former studies, temperature observations obtained by expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) and mechanical bathythermographs (MBTs) appear to have positive biases as much as they affect major climate signals. These biases have not been fully taken into account in previous ocean temperature analyses, which have been widely used to detect global warming signals in the oceans. This report proposes a methodology for directly eliminating the biases from the XBT and MBT observations. In the case of XBT observation, assuming that the positive temperature biases mainly originate from greater depths given by conventional XBT fall-rate equations than the truth, a depth bias equation is constructed by fitting depth differences between XBT data and more accurate oceanographic observations to a linear equation of elapsed time. Such depth bias equations are introduced separately for each year and for each probe type. Uncertainty in the gradient of the linear equation is evaluated using a non-parametric test. The typical depth bias is +10 m at 700 m depth on average, which is probably caused by various indeterminable sources of error in the XBT observations as well as a lack of representativeness in the fall-rate equations adopted so far. Depth biases in MBT are fitted to quadratic equations of depth in a similar manner to the XBT method. Correcting the historical XBT and MBT depth biases by these equations allows a historical ocean temperature analysis to be conducted. In comparison with the previous temperature analysis, large differences are found in the present analysis as follows: the duration of large ocean heat content in the 1970s shortens dramatically, and recent ocean cooling becomes insignificant. The result is also in better agreement with tide gauge observations. On leave from the Meteorological Research Institute of the Japan Meteorological Agency.  相似文献
6.
南海海域叶绿素浓度分布特征的卫星遥感分析   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:17  
陈楚群  施平  毛庆文 《热带海洋学报》2001,20(2):66-70,T001
介绍了第二代海洋水色传感器SeaWiFS资料的特点汲其基本处理方法,海水叶绿素浓度提取方法,对南海域表层海水叶绿素浓度分布的时空变化特征及其与营养物质和南海环流的关系进行了初步分析。  相似文献
7.
The Argo data are used to calculate eddy(turbulence)heat transport(EHT)in the global ocean and analyze its horizontal distribution and vertical structure.We calculate the EHT by averaging all the v′,T′profiles within each 2×2 bin.The velocity and temperature anomalies are obtained by removing their climatological values from the Argo"instantaneous"values respectively.Through the Student’s t-test and an error evaluation,we obtained a total of 87%Argo bins with significant depth-integrated EHTs(D-EHTs).The results reveal a positive-and-negative alternating D-EHT pattern along the western boundary currents(WBC)and Antarctic Circumpolar Current(ACC).The zonally-integrated D-EHT(ZI-EHT)of the global ocean reaches 0.12 PW in the northern WBC band and–0.38 PW in the ACC band respectively.The strong ZI-EHT across the ACC in the global ocean is mainly caused by the southern Indian Ocean.The ZI-EHT in the above two bands accounts for a large portion of the total oceanic heat transport,which may play an important role in regulating the climate.The analysis of vertical structures of the EHT along the 35 N and45 S section reveals that the oscillating EHT pattern can reach deep in the northern WBC regions and the Agulhas Return Current(ARC)region.It also shows that the strong EHT could reach 600 m in the WBC regions and 1 000 m in the ARC region,with the maximum mainly located between 100 and 400 m depth.The results would provide useful information for improving the parameterization scheme in models.  相似文献
8.
The effect of Stokes drift on Ekman transport in the open sea   总被引:5,自引:5,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
By introducing the wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing into ageostrophic motion equation,the Eulerian transport is modified by the wave-induced Stokes drift.The long-term mean contributions of the Stokes transport with remotely generated swells being included to the ageostrophic transport are analyzed using the ECMWF(European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis data.The ratio of Stokes transport to Ekman transport in north-south(N-S) direction can reach a maximum of over 50% in the subtropical region.The preliminary influence of the Stokes transport on the North Pacific gyre is all year persistent,while the effect on the North Atlantic gyre is only obvious in boreal winter and early spring.  相似文献
9.
夏季长江冲淡水扩展的数值模拟   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:15  
建立一个σ坐标系下三维非线性斜压陆架模式,研究夏季径流量,台湾暖流,黄海冷水团,风场对长江冲淡水扩展的影响,数值试验基本再现了夏了长江冲淡水低盐水舌伸向东北的现象和渤,黄,东海的环流结构,长江径流量只影响近口门附近冲淡水朝东南方向扩展势力和整个冲淡水扩展范围的大小。台湾暖流深受底形的影响,流动路径稳定,且不受自身强度的影响,又主流远离长江口,对长江冲淡水扩展的影响不大。黄海冷水团产生的余流在长江口  相似文献
10.
The annual, interannual and inter-decadal variability of convection intensity of South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon and air-sea temperature difference in the tropical ocean is analyzed, and their relationship is discussed using two data sets of 48-a SODA (simple ocean data assimilation) and NCEP/NCAR. Analyses show that in wintertime Indian Ocean (WIO), springtime central tropical Pacific (SCTP) and summertime South China Sea-West Pacific (SSCSWP), air-sea temperature difference is significantly associated with the convection intensity of South China Sea summer monsoon. Correlation of the inter-decadal time scale (above 10 a) is higher and more stable. There is inter-decadal variability of correlation in scales less than 10 a and it is related with the air-sea temperature difference itself for corresponding waters. The inter-decadal variability of the convection intensity during the South China Sea summer monsoon is closely related to the inter-decadal variability of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Since the late period of the 1970s, in the lower troposphere, the cross-equatorial flow from the Southern Hemisphere has intensified. At the upper troposphere layer, the South Asian high and cross-equatorial flow from the Northern Hemisphere has intensified at the same time. Then the monsoon cell has also strengthened and resulted in the reinforcing of the convection of South China Sea summer monsoon.  相似文献
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