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The Semna gold deposit is one of several vein-type gold occurrences in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, where gold-bearing quartz veins are confined to shear zones close to the boundaries of small granitoid stocks. The Semna gold deposit is related to a series of sub-parallel quartz veins along steeply dipping WNW-trending shear zones, which cut through tectonized metagabbro and granodiorite rocks. The orebodies exhibit a complex structure of massive and brecciated quartz consistent with a change of the paleostress field from tensional to simple shear regimes along the pre-existing fault segments. Textural, structural and mineralogical evidence, including open space structures, quartz stockwork and alteration assemblages, constrain on vein development during an active fault system. The ore mineral assemblage includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, subordinate arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite and gold. Hydrothermal chlorite, carbonate, pyrite, chalcopyrite and kaolinite are dominant in the altered metaggabro; whereas, quartz, sericite, pyrite, kaolinite and alunite characterize the granodiorite rocks in the alteration zones. Mixtures of alunite, vuggy silica and disseminated sulfides occupy the interstitial open spaces, common at fracture intersections. Partial recrystallization has rendered the brecciation and open space textures suggesting that the auriferous quartz veins were formed at moderately shallow depths in the transition zone between mesothermal and epithermal veins.Petrographic and microthermometric studies aided recognition of CO2-rich, H2O-rich and mixed H2O–CO2 fluid inclusions in the gold-bearing quartz veins. The H2O–CO2 inclusions are dominant over the other two types and are characterized by variable vapor: liquid ratios. These inclusions are interpreted as products of partial mixing of two immiscible carbonic and aqueous fluids. The generally light δ34S of pyrite and chalcopyrite may suggest a magmatic source of sulfur. Spread in the final homogenization temperatures and bulk inclusion densities are likely due to trapping under pressure fluctuation through repeated fracture opening and sealing. Conditions of gold deposition are estimated on basis of the fluid inclusions and sulfur isotope data as 226–267 °C and 350–1100 bar, under conditions transitional between mesothermal and epithermal systems.The Semna gold deposit can be attributed to interplay of protracted volcanic activity (Dokhan Volcanics?), fluid mixing, wallrock sulfidation and a structural setting favoring gold deposition. Gold was transported as Au-bisulfide complexes under weak acid conditions concomitant with quartz–sericite–pyrite alteration, and precipitated through a decrease in gold solubility due to fluid cooling, mixing with meteoric waters and variations in pH and fO2.  相似文献
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The Imiter inlier at the eastern Anti-Atlas chain (Morocco) hosts a world-class epithermal Ag-Hg deposit, and several occurrences of sulfide-magnetite mineralization. These occurrences are confined to transcurrent faults that cut mildly to highly potassic I- and S-type granite intrusions (e.g., Igoudrane, Bou Teglimt, Taouzzakt and Bou Fliou).In this contribution, we present new field, petrographic and microanalytical data of the Bou Fliou sulfide-magnetite mineralization in the northwestern part of the Bou Teglimt granodiorite intrusion (567?±?6Ma). Field and microscopic investigations reveal pervasive silicification and potassic alteration associated with iron oxides-rich (>10?vol %) veins, stockworks, and breccias along NE-SW faults. The ore minerals are mainly magnetite, hematite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, Ag-galena, cobaltite, and less abundant Bi-sulfosalts (i.e., cosalite, galenobistmuthite, and llilanite-gustavite). The low-titanium iron oxides (magnetite and hematite), widespread iron-rich breccia, association with crustal scale fault zone, pervasive alteration, and overprinting mineral assemblages suggest a shallow level IOCG-style mineralization. High-order splays of the major fault zone could have provided effective traps for magmatic and basinal Cu and Zn-Pb hydrothermal fluids. The ~550 Ma intrusive phases in the region could have contributed by fluid, elements or heat in a local effective blumbing. The mineralogical and ore textural criteria reflecting ore formation at a realtively shallow crustal environment, but a fluid inclusion study is needed to characterize the ore fluids and mechanism of ore deposition.  相似文献
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